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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, Bluegrass Technical and Community College C H A P T E R 1 The Human Body: An Orientation P A R T A

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview of Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another  Gross or macroscopic  Microscopic  Developmental  Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gross Anatomy  Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)  Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system  Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy  Cytology – study of the cell  Histology – study of tissues

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Developmental Anatomy  Traces structural changes throughout life  Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Principle of Complementarity  Form and function

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions  Maintaining boundaries –  Movement  Digestion  Metabolism  Reproduction  Growth

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Survival Needs  Nutrients  Oxygen  Water  Normal body  Atmospheric pressure

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostasis  Homeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Negative Feedback  In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus  Example: Regulation of room temperature

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature rises Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Effector (heater) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat)

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Balance

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat)

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater off Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Stimulus: dropping room temperature Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Stimulus: dropping room temperature Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Imbalance

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Imbalance

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Imbalance

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Response; temperature rises Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature rises Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Effector (heater) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat)

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Positive Feedback  In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus  Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Released chemicals attract more platelets Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Feedback cycle ends after clot seals break Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Imbalance  Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium  Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over


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