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Are We Creating a Performance System or Hodgepodge of Interventions? Training Session Created by Ryan Watkins and John Wedman Published in the 2011 Pfieffer.

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Presentation on theme: "Are We Creating a Performance System or Hodgepodge of Interventions? Training Session Created by Ryan Watkins and John Wedman Published in the 2011 Pfieffer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are We Creating a Performance System or Hodgepodge of Interventions? Training Session Created by Ryan Watkins and John Wedman Published in the 2011 Pfieffer Annuals

2 Objectives Identify what it takes to accomplish something. View accomplishments from a systems perspective. Connect accomplishments to performance improvement. Analyze a situation using a performance improvement model. Critically view performance improvement from a systems perspective.

3 Hell, there are no rules here - we're trying to accomplish something. ~Thomas Edison Short of following Edison’s mantra, how are significant results accomplished?

4 Significant Accomplishment Good Idea We choose to go to the moon Resources Money (lots of money), bright scientist, committed politicians, etc. Support System Scientific knowledge/skills Rewards for innovation and risk taking Communication and coordination Desire to succeed

5 Alignment Good IdeaResources Support System Significant Accomplishment

6 Systems Dynamics If the new ideas are not better than the status quo, obsolescence is unavoidable. The support system consumes resources while enabling the idea to become reality. Accomplishments generate new resources and set the stage for new ideas. If the support system consumes more resources than produced by the accomplishment, a ‘death spiral’ results.

7 Performance Improvement View Wedman’s Performance Pyramid

8 Pyramid Questions Performance Capability Knowledge & Skills Motivation & Self-Concept Expectations & Feedback Environment, Tools, & Processes Incentives, Rewards, & Recognition Are they mentally, socially, & physically able to perform? Are they want to perform? Do they think they are competent? Do incentives drive change? Is good performance rewarded? Is the environment OK? Do they have the tools to do the job? Do processes work? Do they know what to do and why? Do they know how well they are doing? Do they have the knowledge and skills needed to perform?

9 Performance Interventions Sample Interventions: Performance Capability New Employee Recruitment Employee Selection & Retention Resource Allocations Workforce Forecasting Outsourcing Succession Planning Job Rotations Cross-training Interview Standards Competency Models Sample Interventions: Skills & Knowledge Traditional Training Job Aids Knowledge Management On The Job Training E-learning Brown-Bag Lunches Train-the-trainer On-boarding & Orientation

10 Performance Interventions Cont’ Sample Interventions: Motivation & Self-Concept Career Coaching Motivation Workshops Team Building Self-esteem Job Rotations Counseling Confidence Building Sample Interventions: Expectations & Feedback Performance Reviews Balanced Scorecards Retreats and Roundtables Town Hall Meetings Reference Manuals On-boarding & Orientation 360 Degree Evaluations

11 Performance Interventions Cont’ Sample Interventions: Tools, Environment, & Processes New technology Workplace Redesign Process Redesign Ergonomics Electronic Performance Support Labeling Color Coding Sample Interventions: Incentives, Rewards, & Recognition Awards Programs Employee of the Month Recognition Messages Peer Recognition Job Sharing Flex Hours Telecommuting Financial incentives

12 Systemic Analysis Goal: Examine each subsystem to determine its relation with the performance gap (i.e., difference between current and desired results). Example: Expectations & Feedback –Do staff know what results they are expected to achieve? –Do staff receive timely feedback on their performance in relation to the achievement of desired results? –Do managers meet routinely with staff to describe expectations and provide performance feedback? Example: Organizational Culture –How does the organization’s culture support the achievement of desired results? –What elements of the organization’s culture oppose desired performance?

13 Performance System Design Goal: Create holistic performance systems that accomplish desired results. Example: Incentives, Rewards, and Recognition –What incentives can be used to encourage staff to accomplish desired results? –How can we reward the achievement of desired results? –How can we recognize those employees who achieve desired results?

14 OK…but….…is it a system?

15 General Systems Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy Béla H. Bánáthy Used in many scientific disciplines and “real world” applications –Biology, physics, psychology, economics, etc. –Management, software, family therapy, etc.

16 Principles of Systems Theory PrinciplePyramid Examples InterrelatednessNew tools require new skills. Rewards are based on meeting expectations. Capability shapes self-concept. InterdependenceClarifying performance expectations without providing adequate resources and supportive environment will not accomplish sustainable results. ConnectivityLearning requires inputs from participants, clients, managers, suppliers, and others. SynergyAlone, changes in incentives or rewards will not achieve desired and sustainable improvements. EquifinalityThere is no single set of interventions or activities that will accomplish results, there are many options to considered and compared.

17 Theory Application Models, Frameworks, Rubrics, Algorithms Examples of “Systems Models” –Kaufman’s Organizational Elements Model –Mager’s Performance Analysis Flow Chart –Rummler’s Nine Performance Variables –Wedman’s Performance Pyramid Examples of “Systems Thinking” in the literature –Peter Senge, Margaret Wheatley, Richard Swanson *More information on each of these models is available in: Wilmoth, F., Prigmore, C., and Bray, M. (Reprint). HPT Models: An Overview of the Major Models in the Field. In Watkins, R. and Leigh, D. (2010). Handbook for Improving Performance in the Workplace – Vol. 2: Selecting and Implementing Performance Interventions. San Francisco:Wiley/Pfieffer.

18 Summary With a few notable exceptions, accomplishments result from aligning a good idea with resources, and performance support. Performance improvement requires a combination of several interrelated interventions. Wedman’s Performance Pyramid is one example of a performance improvement system. Lacking a systemic framework, performance improvement is a hodgepodge of interventions.

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