2Strategy What is meant by strategy? Impacts of strategies on objectives??Reasons for success or failure of strategies.Examples of organizational strategies???Real life examples???
3like a ship without rudder, going around in circles, it’s like a tramp WHYWithout strategyan organization islike a ship without rudder,going around in circles,it’s like a trampit has no place to go.Joel Ross and Michael kami
4THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT The strategic management process consist of three stages:STRATEGY FORMULATION- Developing business mission, identifying opportunities and threats, determining strengths and weaknesses, establishing long term objectives, generating alternative strategies and choosing particular strategies to pursue.STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION- Action stage--mobilizing employees and managers to put strategies into actions.STRATEGY EVALUATION— Information about results vs. Targets.
5STRATEGY STRATEGY IS : PLAN, POLICY, APPROACH, TACTIC, LINE OF ACTION, SCHEME
6CONCEPT OF STRATEGYStrategy drives as a military term- The art of projecting & directing the larger military movements and operations of a compaign.It involves the use of formal & systematic design techniques, is quantified and extrernally focused , concentrate on long term plans, without being much concerned with implementation and more or less ignore the human element.
7CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCES A strategic & coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets-the people , who contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives.
8Human Resource Management Human Resource Management (HRM)Activities that managers engage in to attract and retain employees and to ensure that they perform at a high level and contribute to the accomplishment of organizational goals.HRM activitiesRecruitment and selectionTraining and developmentPerformance appraisal and feedbackPay and benefitsLabor relations
9Strategic Human Resource Management The process by which managers design the components of a human resource system to be consistent with each other, with other elements of organizational structure, and with the organization’s strategy and goals.The objective of strategic HRM is the development of an HRM system that enhances the organization’s efficiency, quality, innovation, and responsiveness to customers.
10HUMAN RESOURCES INVESTMENT CONSIDERATIONS Management values.Risk and return on HR investment.Economic rationale for investment in training.Utility theory.Outsourcing.
11An Investment Prospective of Human Resource Management HRM practitioners & Scholars have long advocated that HR should be viewed from investment prospective.Current practices indicate employees as valuable investment but still some organizations view employees as variable cost and their is little recognition about employees training & development, recruitment & replacement cost.Investment only in physical resources does not give organizations a competitive edge as systems, processes can be duplicated, cloned or reversed engineered.Maintainable edge / advantage drives from the level of skills of employees, their knowledge and capabilities.
12An Investment Prospective of Human Resource Management Management scholar Edward Lawler described investment in Human Resources as:“To be competitive , organizations in many industries must have highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce. They must also have a relatively stable labour force since employee turnover works directly against obtaining the kind of coordination and organizational learning that leads to fast response and high quality products and services.”Due to forecast of shifts in skills need from manual to cerebral (intellectual) , investment for enhancing employees knowledge & skills become more important.
13INVESTMENT IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Investment in employability.(training, internship, higher level exposure, learning environment, multi- skilling & growth opportunities etc. which makes employees more employable.Investment in training.For future strategies and competitive advantage investment in employees training and development to enhance skills to face rapid technological changes.
14INVESTMENT IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT On job training..Investment in management development.Prevention of skills obsolescence.Reduction in career plateauing. (stagnation)
15Investment practices for improved retention Organizational culture emphasizing interpersonal relationship values.Effective selection procedures.Compensation and benefits.Job enrichment and job satisfaction.Practices providing work life balance.Organizational direction creating confidence in the future.Retention of technical employees.Other practices in facilitating retention.
16Investment in job secure workforce Employment security/ job guarantee.Recognition of the cost of downsizing and lay-offs.Avoiding business cycle-based lay-offs.Alternatives to lay offs.Redeployment.Curtailment of sub contracts.Reassignment of work to company employees.Pay cuts.Paid / unpaid leaves.Ethical implications of employment practicesNon traditional investment approaches.Investment in disabled employees.Investment in employee health.Countercyclical hiring .-keeping highly technical / skilled for future use when company will have normal operations– bhatta business.