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History of Humans Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens 1. about 60,000 yrs old. Estimate.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Humans Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens 1. about 60,000 yrs old. Estimate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 History of Humans Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens Current form of our species is Homo sapiens sapiens 1. about 60,000 yrs old. Estimate may be as old as 90,000 to 176, Up until 12,000 to 10,000 years ago we were hunter-gatherers 3. 12,000 yrs ago switched to agriculure years ago industrial revolution 5. Last 50 yrs-Information revolution

3 Hunter-gatherers Collected edible plants and hunted and scavenged meat Collected edible plants and hunted and scavenged meat Nomadic groups of 50 Nomadic groups of 50 Survived through earth wisdom Survived through earth wisdom Short life span Short life span High infant mortality High infant mortality Population grew very slowly Population grew very slowly

4 Environmental Impacts of Hunter-gatherers Started fires to flesh out game Started fires to flesh out game Stampeded wild animals over cliffs Stampeded wild animals over cliffs Contributed to change of forests to grasslands Contributed to change of forests to grasslands Contributed to the extinction of the Mastodon, Saber Tooth Cats, cave bear, giant sloth, and mammoth Contributed to the extinction of the Mastodon, Saber Tooth Cats, cave bear, giant sloth, and mammoth Altered species distribution Altered species distribution Overall low resource use and low environmental impact Overall low resource use and low environmental impact

5 Agricultural Societies-before the plow Domestication of wild animals and cultivation of plants Domestication of wild animals and cultivation of plants Probably a slow shift that began with hunter-gathers supplementing their food Probably a slow shift that began with hunter-gathers supplementing their food Began in the tropical forests of Asia, Mexico, and Africa Began in the tropical forests of Asia, Mexico, and Africa Practiced slash and burn agriculture Practiced slash and burn agriculture After a plot was used for several years, it was reinvaded by forest and left fallow for 30 years After a plot was used for several years, it was reinvaded by forest and left fallow for 30 years This is subsistence farming and there was little impact because the plots were small and they had no tools This is subsistence farming and there was little impact because the plots were small and they had no tools

6 Agricultural Societies- Post Plow Later, with the invention of the metal plow pulled by animals everything changed Later, with the invention of the metal plow pulled by animals everything changed The plow allowed the farmers to grow enough food for their families and to save some for barter The plow allowed the farmers to grow enough food for their families and to save some for barter This allowed trade and cities to be set-up. It also caused disputes over land This allowed trade and cities to be set-up. It also caused disputes over land Now survival of wild animals becomes less important Now survival of wild animals becomes less important

7 Effects of Agricultural Revolution Birth rates rose faster than death rates and population increased Birth rates rose faster than death rates and population increased People cleared increasingly larger plots of land and destroyed more natural habitat People cleared increasingly larger plots of land and destroyed more natural habitat People began accumulating material goods People began accumulating material goods

8 Fig , p. 255 Low High Relative population size Birth rate and death rate (number per 1,000 per year) Stage 1 Preindustrial Stage 2 Transitional Stage 3 Industrial Stage 4 Postindustrial Low growth rate Increasing Growth growth rate Very high growth rate Decreasing growth rate Low growth rate Zero growth rate Negative growth rate Birth rate Total population Death rate Time

9 Industrial Revolution Began in England in the mid 1700s Began in England in the mid 1700s Began when England used up all of its forests and substituted coal for wood Began when England used up all of its forests and substituted coal for wood Shift from renewable to n on-renewable Shift from renewable to n on-renewable This lead to growth in mechanization and factory towns This lead to growth in mechanization and factory towns Fossil fuel powered farm equipment lead to an increased agricultural yield which lead to more people Fossil fuel powered farm equipment lead to an increased agricultural yield which lead to more people

10 Environmental Impacts Reduced infant mortality Reduced infant mortality Raised life expectancy which lead to more people Raised life expectancy which lead to more people Better health Better health Birth control Birth control Education Education Affordable goods Affordable goods income income

11 Globalization and The Information Revolution Cultural shift to new technologies such as TV, computers an internet Cultural shift to new technologies such as TV, computers an internet Hard to know what the impacts will be Hard to know what the impacts will be

12 Possible Impacts Help us understand more about the Earth and how systems work Help us understand more about the Earth and how systems work Allow us to respond to problems faster Allow us to respond to problems faster Use technology to monitor changes in the Earth Use technology to monitor changes in the Earth More sophisticated technology to model complex systems More sophisticated technology to model complex systems Technology to reduce pollution and use materials more effectively Technology to reduce pollution and use materials more effectively

13 Bad Stuff about it Cause confusion, distraction, and a sense of hopelessness because of information overload Cause confusion, distraction, and a sense of hopelessness because of information overload Increase environmental degradation and homogenization of world cultures Increase environmental degradation and homogenization of world cultures We are developing new technologies before we can evaluate their impact We are developing new technologies before we can evaluate their impact

14 The Conservation era : Early Conservationists They urged unspoiled wilderness be managed by the government for future generations They urged unspoiled wilderness be managed by the government for future generations George Caitlin George Caitlin Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau George Perkins Marsh George Perkins Marsh

15 Conservationists : environmental concern grows because of yellow fever, typhoid fever, cholera, garbage, air pollution, unsafe factories, contaminated water : environmental concern grows because of yellow fever, typhoid fever, cholera, garbage, air pollution, unsafe factories, contaminated water 1891 Forest Reserve Act: established the responsibilty of the federal government to protec public lands 1891 Forest Reserve Act: established the responsibilty of the federal government to protec public lands 1892: John Muir formed the Sierra club 1892: John Muir formed the Sierra club

16 : Golden Era of Conservation Theodore Roosevelt was president Theodore Roosevelt was president Persuaded congress to give the president the power to designate public land as wildlife refuges Persuaded congress to give the president the power to designate public land as wildlife refuges Established the bureau of reclamation Established the bureau of reclamation Tripled the size of forest reserves Tripled the size of forest reserves 1905: Congress created the US Forest service to manage and protect forest reserves. Gifford Pinchot was the first chief 1905: Congress created the US Forest service to manage and protect forest reserves. Gifford Pinchot was the first chief 1912: US National Park System was created 1912: US National Park System was created The passenger pigeon became extinct The passenger pigeon became extinct

17 Hetch-Hetchy Decision: divided the conservationists into two groups. Preservationists Preservationists Believed humans should protect nature, not conquer it Believed humans should protect nature, not conquer it John Muir John Muir Wise Use Wise Use Believed resources should be used wisely to enhance the nations economic growth Believed resources should be used wisely to enhance the nations economic growth Gifford Pinchot Gifford Pinchot Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt

18 Both groups opposed delivering public lands into the hands of a few for profit Both groups opposed delivering public lands into the hands of a few for profit Both would be disappointed by what has happened over the years Both would be disappointed by what has happened over the years

19 The 1930s was the great depression and Franklin Roosevelt was president The 1930s was the great depression and Franklin Roosevelt was president Low cost purchase of large tracts of land from cash poor landowners Low cost purchase of large tracts of land from cash poor landowners Started Civilian Conservation Corp Started Civilian Conservation Corp Built large dams to get cheap water to CA Built large dams to get cheap water to CA Enacted the Soil Conservation Act of 1935 that was for combating the problem of soil erosion Enacted the Soil Conservation Act of 1935 that was for combating the problem of soil erosion

20 The 1960s Rachel Carson published silent spring, which documented how DDT was killing wildlife. The beginning of the environmental Era. Rachel Carson published silent spring, which documented how DDT was killing wildlife. The beginning of the environmental Era.

21 The 1960s 1964 Wilderness Act allowed the government to protect large tracts of public land as part of the National Wilderness System 1964 Wilderness Act allowed the government to protect large tracts of public land as part of the National Wilderness System science of ecology was created to understand earth science of ecology was created to understand earth Cuyahoga River caught fire and burned for eight days Cuyahoga River caught fire and burned for eight days

22 1960s Massive air pollution in New York leaves 300 dead Massive air pollution in New York leaves 300 dead Lake Erie beaches closed due to pollution Lake Erie beaches closed due to pollution Santa Barbara coastline heavily polluted by leaking offshore oil rigs. Santa Barbara coastline heavily polluted by leaking offshore oil rigs. Foam in rivers from pollution Foam in rivers from pollution

23 The 1970s April 20 th first Earth Day April 20 th first Earth Day 1970 Richard Nixon created EPA (the Environmental Protection Agency 1970 Richard Nixon created EPA (the Environmental Protection Agency 1973 OPEC oil embargo 1973 OPEC oil embargo 1974 CFCs found to be creating ozone hole 1974 CFCs found to be creating ozone hole 1978 Love Canal 1978 Love Canal 1979 Three Mile Island 1979 Three Mile Island

24 1980s The Wise Use movement was formed which was an industrial coalition aimed at destroying all the environmental laws The Wise Use movement was formed which was an industrial coalition aimed at destroying all the environmental laws


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