Presentation on theme: "MATERIALIZATION OF RELIGIOUS CEREMONY SYSTEM IN THE INTERIOR OF JAVANESE TRADITIONAL HOUSES IN KOTAGEDE By: Adi Santosa Department of Interior Design Faculty."— Presentation transcript:
MATERIALIZATION OF RELIGIOUS CEREMONY SYSTEM IN THE INTERIOR OF JAVANESE TRADITIONAL HOUSES IN KOTAGEDE By: Adi Santosa Department of Interior Design Faculty of Art and Design Petra Christian University - Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract Javanese culture was based on mysticism. Javanese thought and acted based on the spiritual powers. These were the entry for creating of both materially and non- materially cultures. Those spiritual values were materialized in symbolism, which lived in most of Javanese life. In Javanese life, there were a cycle of life started from birth, maturation, marriage, and death. In each cycle, Javanese used to do ceremonial meal, a ritual based on mystical believe which was full of symbolism. In each ceremonial meal ritual related to the cycle of life, Javanese used their houses to hold the ritual. Hence, a house functioned not only for private but also public space; a space for community activities. Therefore, the pattern of rooms at their houses would be influenced by the need of community activities; those were the ceremonial meal rituals. While, the symbolic meanings of the ceremonial meal rituals would be responded by the rooms. Kotagede is the old site of Javanese culture center. In this site there was Mataram kingdom which was built by Senopati in the middle of 16th century. This kingdom indicated syncretism of indigenous believe, Hinduism-Buddhism and Islam, which was applied in daily life of the palace (Nakamura, 1983). Ceremonial meal rituals were created from this syncretism. Archaeological remains of the authentic Javanese culture, especially buildings, are still left now. These are the reason why Kotagede is chosen as the field of research. Theoretically, there are three forms of culture: (1) complex of ideas, values, norms, regulations, etc (2) complex of patterned attitude activities of human in society, (3) inanimate objects made by human (Koentjaraningrat, 1974). They can not be divided one to another. Each ceremonial meal rituals needed a place for realization. As religious activities, the ceremonial meal rituals were from ideas which had symbolic meanings. Those symbolic meanings were responded in the place where the rituals were held. Those three forms of culture always have interrelationship one to another. This theory is used for the research as the basic. The research discusses about connectivity between the interior of houses and cultural activities in term of Religious Ceremony System in Kotagede in the past. From that connectivity, it is known that the interior of Javanese traditional houses in Kotagede could contain ceremonial meal rituals and respond to the symbolic meanings of ceremonial meal rituals by the form and hierarchy of rooms.
Background Kotagede is used to be the center of Mataram Islamic Kingdom which was built by Panembahan Senopati in 1558. As the Kingdom of Java Island, Mataram was the heir of power of Majapahit Hinduism Kingdom in the 13th century. Hence, all of Javanese cultural heritages which had developed since the era of Hindu until the era of Islam were absorbed in Mataram. Besides, geographical position of Mataram which was in the hinterland of Java gave the impact of absorption of local culture which formed a unique cultural system, it was Javanese traditional culture. In the Javanese traditional society, interrelation of the three cultural elements – local believe, Hindu and Islam – is explained by researchers as some terminologies: the religion of Javanese, Javanese Islam, non-aligned Islam, Javanese syncretism, spiritualism, belief, Javanese religion, etc. Each explanation has its reason, based on observation, analysis or total comprehension of the researcher (Sujamto, 1991). Although there are some different terminologies but it can be generalized that the base of Javanese culture is mystic. Javanese thought, attituded, and acted based on the faith of spiritual powers. From these facts all products of culture, both materially and non-materially, were formed. Furthermore the spiritual values were manifested in symbolism which existed in almost of Javanese traditional life. In Javanese traditional life, there was a cycle of life started by birth, maturation, marriage (wedding) and death. In each cycle they used to make a ritual, that was ceremonial meal, a spiritual activity based on mystical believe that was full of symbolism. Ceremonial meal was carried out by family who have a ceremony. Generally the ceremonial meal was carried out to keep or return the harmony of relationship between human and nature of macrocosm and microcosm. In the activities of ceremonial meals related to cycle of life, Javanese used their houses to hold the rituals. Hence, a house functioned not only for private space, that was a place for activities of their own family, but also for public space, that was a place for activities together with neighbours. Therefore, the pattern of rooms at their houses would be influenced by the need of community activities; it was a place for communal activities in order to carry out spiritual tradition which was full of symbolic meanings.
Theory Based on the discourse of sociology, Koentjaraningrat divided culture into the seven of universal substances, they are: (1) system of religion and religious ceremony, (2) system and society organization, (3) system of knowledge, (4) language, (5) art, (6) system and organization of social, (7) system of technology and tools (Koentjaraningrat, 1974). Therefore, all things related to the symbolic meaning of ceremonial meal’s activities are part of system of religion and religious ceremony. Although only one among the seven of universal substances, but it is important and relevant because system of religion and religious ceremony is the first substance which is difficult to change compared to others. Besides, in the Javanese society, especially in Kotagede as the former of center of Javanese traditional culture, substance of system of religion and religious ceremony hold an important role because the base of Javanese culture is mystic, in which Javanese traditional society thought and act based on the spiritual powers. These spiritual powers were the entry for creating of both materially and non-materially cultures. The system of religion and religious ceremony are applied into three forms of culture: (1) form of culture as complex of ideas, values, norms, regulations, etc (2) forms of culture as complex of patterned attitude activities of human in society, (3) form of culture as inanimate objects made by human (Koentjaraningrat, 1974). They can not be divided one to another. Ceremonial meals related to the cycle of life which have ever existed in Kotagede are the form of culture as complex of values and norms. Each ceremonial meal ritual needs a place for realization. As religious activities, the ceremonial meal rituals are created from ideas which have symbolic meanings. Those symbolic meanings are responded in the place where the rituals are held. Those three forms of culture always have interrelationship one to another. This theory is used for the research as the basic to be proven.
Refer to the data of Study and Documentation Centre of Kotagede (1985); there were 170 joglo houses in Kotagede in 1985. Most of them were in the sub-district of Jagalan, Alun-Alun, Prenggan, Basen, and Purbayan, of which historically were territory of The Mataram Kingdom. Generally those joglos were built in the middle of 19th century, although some were built later. Nowadays some joglos decrease because some reason such as the costs of treatment and renovation. The need of the interior has been changed; some buildings which were built in 1880 have been broken and replaced by modern buildings, for instance the house of Ahmad Dalem Mustahal in kampong of Prenggan and the house of Kanjeng Martalaya in kampong of Citran which have been changed and the house of Sopingen which has been sold. The oldest house is the house of Bahoewinangoen in kampong of Citran. That house was built in 1750. The last house which has still had traditional interior is the house of Ngudirahardja in kampong of Basen. That house was built in 1942. Condition of Traditional Houses in Kotagede
Scheme of Joglo building complex (Dakung, 1981:56) 5 6 Legend: 1.Pendopo room 2.Pringgitan room 3.Dalem room a. Left Senthong b. Middle Senthong c. Right Senthong 4.Gandok room 5.Longkangan area 6.Kitchen, Bathroom and Well Condition of Traditional Houses in Kotagede
Pendopo room type of joglo jompongan building in kampong of Alun-alun Wooden beam with odd of numbers locked by wooden dowel Colored ornaments in the main beam Pendopo Room Pendopo is an opened room located in the foremost of Javanese traditional house, and built as independent building in front of the other buildings in one complex of a house. It was connected with other buildings by a path called longkangan area. It has no walls and the ceiling is supported by wooden pillars. Every pendopo has four main pillars called sokoguru, located in the center of room. The other pillars are located in the border around with several variations of numbers. Most of pendopo rooms in Kotagede have 16 pillars, and they are called joglo jompongan. Only a few of traditional houses in Kotagede still remain pendopo room.
Space in pringgitan room isolated by wood partition Door’s handle made of cast iron Ornamented beam of the partition Pringgitan Room Pringgitan room is located between dalem room and longkangan area ahead. It is functioned as transitional space from the exterior to the interior. The height of floor of pringgitan room is equal to the height of pendopo room ahead, and sometimes is lower than dalem room. The wall of pringgitan room function as a knock down partition, therefore it is usually made of wood.
Dalem Room Dalem room with four main pillars called sokoguru The hierarchy of ceiling of the main pillars arranged as wooden beam Dalem room is the main part of the house, and principally the kind of a Javanese traditional house can be identified based on the building’s form of the dalem room. Hence, a house is called as joglo because the building’s form of the dalem room is joglo’s form. Form and proportion of dalem room in the traditional houses in Kotagede have some variations, but they generally have similarities such as the form of floor which are higher than the other rooms. Another similarity is the two umpak (the foundation of main pillars made of stone) as the support of two main pillars (sokoguru) among the four of main pillars which are in the center of room. Two others of umpak are located in the border, as the partition of senthong room. The hierarchy of ceiling of the main pillars are tumpang sari form, arranged as wooden beam which is odd of numbers and locked by wooden dowel called emprit ganthil.
Middle senthong with partition made of wood panel and curtain made of velveteen Middle senthong with accessories for wedding Senthong Room Observed from the structure of building, senthong room is part of dalem room. Senthong is divided from dalem room by partition. Some partitions are made of wood, and the other are made of cement. Senthong room is divided into three parts: middle senthong, right senthong and left senthong. One to another part of senthong rooms are also divided by partitions, both made of wood and cement. Senthong rooms have no doors, but curtains which are made of velveteen or cinde batik. Some of the height of floor of senthong room is equal to dalem room, and others are higher.
Gandok Room Open space in gandok room with lower floor in the middle as corridor connecting doors in front and behind Arrangement of pillars two by two in the middle Gandok room is formed by one or more devided building located in the right side (right gandok) or/and left side (left gandok) of the main building (dalem and senthong). Based on the observation in Kotagede, left gandok room are larger and functional than the right one. It is commonly build with structure of ceiling which is directly connected to the ceiling of the main building. In this type of ceiling, pillars are arranged two by two in the middle, with floor between two pillars are lower, form a corridor connecting doors in front and behind.
Longkangan area between pendopo and pringgitan room formed a unique pathway Longkangan Area Longkangan area is an area which connects pendopo room and pringgitan room. Some longkangan have ceiling called kuncung, and others are opened. Longkangans in Kotagede are usually opened. In the kampong of Alun-alun, opened longkangans are side by side become a unique pathway
Kitchen, Bathroom & Well Kitchen, well and bathroom located side by side Kitchen is located in the behind of house. There are bathroom and well around this area. Besides for cooking, sometimes kitchen is functioned as eating room by putting a couch. Building of kitchen is usually devided from the other buildings.
Birth Ceremony Analysis Neighbors sitting on the couch in gandok room
Ceremonies related to the birth in the Javanese traditional society is very complex and detail. They are from the ceremonies of pregnancy, birth, giving name (kekahan) until ceremony of baby walking (tedhak siten). Ceremonies for pregnancy are devided into four steps, they are: the second month of pregnancy, the fourth month of pregnancy, the seventh month of pregnancy (mitoni) and the ninth month of pregnancy. In Kotagede, ceremonies which used to be done were mitoni and kekahan. Mitoni has core rituals, they are taking a bath with water mixed by flowers and changing clothes for seven times. After taking a bath the pregnant entered a room, it used to be in the right or left senthong, and changed clothes for seven times. Every changing one clothes, she went to dalem or gandok room to show weather she was proper or not. This ceremony symbolizes self purification, preparation both physically and mentally for the properly to execute a holy duty to born a baby. After that, the pregnant carried out next ceremony; it was the cutting of lawe. Lawe is a rope that is used for oil stove or lamp. In this ceremony, lawe was used to tie dress which was used by the pregnant around the stomach. The cutting of lawe was done by husband by Keris. This ceremony symbolizes a hope that the process of birth would be successful. The next ceremony was the selling of dawet (traditional drink made of coconut). Neighbours were invited to come and buy the dawet by changing earthenware. Than the earthenware were brought to the yard to be broken. This ceremony symbolizes a hope that the baby will get wealth. While, the pregnant was made up in senthong room, and the offering put in front of senthong room was prayed by old person, with request that the baby born safely. After all the offering was taken and eaten together. The next ceremony was kekahan; it was a ceremony of giving name for the baby. There wasn’t offering for this ceremony, but slaughter of goat. The meat was distributed for the neighbours. In the evening the family held recitation of the Koran. It used dalem room or pringgitan room. This ceremony was to thank to God and pray for safety of all family members.
Maturation Ceremony Participants of mass circumcision in the veranda of Grand Mosque of Kotagede The parade of circumcision
Maturation ceremony was done by circumcision which can be held massive or individually. Mass circumcision was executed in the Grand Mosque of Kotagede and individual circumcision was executed at home. Ceremony of circumcision was started by taking a bath and using traditional clothes. After that the kid was brought by a litter around the house. The litter was a miniature of traditional house of joglo. The parade finished in front of longkangan area, between pringgitan and pendopo room and the guests saw the kid from pendopo room. It symbolized that they give blessing for the success of circumcision and the maturity of the kid. After that the father brought the kid into the house. The room which was used for circumcision was gandok room. The executioner of circumcision was a shaman. After finished, the kid was still in the room and one by one the guests came into the gandok room to give congratulation. This ceremony was carried out from morning until afternoon. In the evening, the shaman or old person burned incense derived from gum benzoin called menyan in front of offering which was laid down in front of senthong room. The shaman or old person prayed for forefathers and hoped that they would give blessing for the future of the kid. When the fire was out, it was believed that the forefathers had finished sucking the offering. After all the offering was brought into gandok room and eaten by family and neighbours.
Wedding Ceremony Bride and bridegroom standing in dalem room, in front of senthong room A bride dressed in left or right senthong room Young women preparing food for wedding in gandok room
The first activity done by family for wedding ceremony was installer of grandstand called tarub, it was a decoration on the house’s gate made of leaves and fruits such as: coconut leaf, bananas, sugar cane, coconuts. After finishing grandstand, an offering was installed under it to prevent devils not to disturb the ceremony. The next ceremony was bathing the bride with flowering water. The bathing was carried out in the afternoon, one day before consent. It took a place beside well behind gandok room. In the evening the bride stayed in the senthong room waiting for the midnight. It was called midodareni (the coming of fairy). During waiting time, she was accompanied by some women’s friends. The purpose of this ceremony was to mentally prepare for marriage, symbolized by the coming of fairy in the midnight to give blessing for the bride. If the bride was really prepared she would look beautiful during the wedding party one day further. Some accessories were applied in the wedding room, such as: one set of bouquet called kembar mayang, two earthenware called kendi, two earthenware with flowering water in them, rose, jasmine, cananga, betel leaf and lime put under the bed. Still in the night before consent, ceremonial meal’s offering was prepared in front of senthong room. It was composed of: conical cooked rise, chicken, meat, tofu and egg, seven kinds of porridges, banana, young coconut, tea, coffee and cigarette. Praying with burning incense derived from gum benzoin called menyan near by offering was executed by a shaman or old person in order to plead for the save of the bride and bridegroom and all family during the wedding ceremony. After that all offerings were taken and eaten together with all family and relatives.
Death Ceremony A member of commemoration ceremony bringing offering Neighbours having dinner after praying for the deceased
In the traditional society of Kotagede, the corpse was laid on the couch in gandok room and covered with a newest batik, to wait for death ceremonies, those were: bathing, making up, dispatch and burial of the corpse. Traditional society of Kotagede, similar to other Javanese, believed that the soul of the corpse didn’t directly leave his or her house behind. From the 7th until the 40th day after death, the soul was still around the house. From the 40th until the 100th day after death, the soul started to leave the yard behind, but sometimes still came back in certain days until the day of 1000th. Therefore the family carried out ceremonial meals for each step, they were: the 3rd day ceremony, the 7th day ceremony, the 40th day ceremony, the 100th day ceremony, the 1st year ceremony, the 2nd year ceremony and the 1000th day ceremony. The offerings for death ceremonies were varied, but the main materials were cooked rice and chicken. All offerings were served on the bamboo’s winnowing tray. There were two ways to serve. The fist way, the offering was put in dalem room, in front of senthong room. The second way, the offering was put in the dalem room and than brought into pendopo room. Besides, packages of flowers called kembang setaman were put in middle senthong room, the four corners of the house and beside well. Ceremonial meal was executed by inviting several people to do tahlilan, that was a ritual of Islamic worship with the key words “laa ilaaha illalah” (there is no other God but only Alloh) which was said back and forth and repeated. This ritual was held in the evening. All members of tahlilan sat down with cross-legged around in dalem room. An offering was put in the center of people’s circle. The sound of tahlilan reverberated around the room, arose sacred sound. The height of ceiling in the center of joglo building with the four pillars symbolized greatness of God.
After the tahlilan was over, the prayers said goodbye and bringing some food which were similar to the offering. The offering was taken and eaten together with all family members. They believed that the food from offering would give blessing for everyone who ate it; therefore it was shared equally for all people in the house. They didn’t eat the former offering in dalem room in front of senthong room, but in gandok room. They believed that the place was proper only for the soul to suck the smell of offering. Special for kalang people, a community of craftsmen in Kotagede, they had little different tradition from others in the death ceremony. Historically, they were brought from Bali Island by Senopati, the ruler of Mataram Kingdom. Culturally, kalang people had tendency to Hinduism. Rituals from the 3rd day ceremony until the 2nd year ceremony were similar to the rituals of other community. However, for the 1000th day ceremony kalang people had special ritual, it was kalang obong ceremony. Kalang obong was a ceremony of cremation of wooden doll, whereas the corpse had been buried one year before. This ritual remembers us to the cremation ceremony in Bali called ngaben. Kalang obong ceremony was held in the yard, and the sawdust was stored in the middle senthong room.
Table of Interrelationship between Ceremonial Meal Rituals and the Interior of Javanese Traditional House in Kotagede
1. Birth Ceremony Ceremonial Meal Rituals Need of RoomsProvision of RoomsSymbolic Meaning of The Rituals Symbolic Meaning of Rooms BathingRoom to bathe the mother Behind the house, near well Self purification of the mother to execute noble duty to born a baby Self purification was symbolized by opened and bright space near the well Changing kemben Room to change clothes and show herself Left-Senthong, dalem or gandok Physically and mentally preparation of the mother to give birth Physically and mentally preparation were symbolized by room’s arrangement which was near to middle-senthong, it meant close to the God Cutting laweRoom to cut lawe, or enter egg and two coconuts into mother’s dress Dalem or gandokA hope for the baby born smoothly Smoothness was symbolized by the form of room which was wide Selling dawetRoom to sell the dawet PringgitanA hope for the baby get a lot of financial income in the future Financial income source was symbolized by the pringgitan’s door which was positioned in the centre with wide opening. Giving offering Room to put offeringDalem, In front of middle-senthong Horizontally communication to the God, praying a hope for the baby born safely Horizontally communication was symbolized by room’s arrangement in the middle and high position, in a peace and quite situation. Taking offering Room to take offering and eat together GandokSharing blessing for family members The flow of blessing was symbolized by the form of room stretch of floor KekahanRoom to read The Koran Dalem or pringgitanThank to God for His Glory and a hope for blessing The Greatness of God was symbolized by ceiling focused on the centre
2. Maturation Ceremony Ceremonial Meal Rituals Need of RoomsProvision of Rooms Symbolic Meaning of The Rituals Symbolic Meaning of Rooms Bringing the kid by litter Room for the kid gone down from the litter LongkanganEffort of parent to bring the kid success and get the glory in the future Bringing the kid success and get the glory was symbolized by the position of room between two other rooms: pringgitan (inside territory) and pendopo (outside territory) Seeing the kidRoom to see the kid gone down from the litter PendopoProfessing faith of parent to give blessing for the kid toward maturity Blessing from top (parent) to below (kid) was symbolized by the higher position of room Giving offeringRoom to put offeringDalem, in front of middle-senthong Horizontally communication to the God, praying a hope for the kid circumcised safely Horizontally communication was symbolized by room’s arrangement in the middle and high position, in a peace and quite situation. Taking offeringRoom to take offering and eat together GandokSharing blessing for family members The flow of blessing was symbolized by the form of room stretch of floor
3. Wedding Ceremony Ceremonial Meal Rituals Need of RoomsProvision of RoomsSymbolic Meaning of The Rituals Symbolic Meaning of Rooms Grandstand offering Room to put the grandstand offering Grandstand, near main entrance Prevention devils not disturb the ceremony Preventing devils was symbolized by young coconut leaf as ornament in the grandstand BathingRoom to bathe the bridegroom and bride Behind the house, near well Self purification of the bridegroom and bride to execute marriage with honesty Self purification was symbolized by opened and bright space near the well Midodareni (The coming of fairy) Room for bridegroom be silent till midnight Left or right-senthongPreparing mental and spiritual to execute marriage believed as the coming of fairy Preparation of mental and spiritual were symbolized by decorating of room which was clean, orderly and dominated by bright colours Giving offering Room to put offeringDalem, in front of middle-senthong Horizontally communication to the God, praying a hope for the bride and bridegroom married successfully Horizontally communication was symbolized by room’s arrangement in the middle and high position, in a peace and quite situation. Taking offering Room to take offering and eat together GandokSharing blessing for family members The flow of blessing was symbolized by the form of room stretch of floor
4. Death Ceremony Ceremonial Meal Rituals Need of RoomsProvision of Rooms Symbolic Meaning of The Rituals Symbolic Meaning of Rooms Giving offeringRoom to put offeringDalem, in front of middle-senthong Horizontally communication to the God, praying a hope for the salvation of soul Horizontally communication was symbolized by room’s arrangement in the middle and high position, in a peace and quite situation. Giving offering’s flowers Room to put offering flowers Middle-senthong and the four corner of house Keeping balance between macrocosm and microcosm The balance was symbolized by the fourth corner of room formed rectangular with senthong room as the center Tahlilan (commemoration praying) Room to sit with legs crossed, around the room Dalem, or pringgitan, or pendopo Glory to the God and pray for the salvation of soul The glorious of the God was symbolized by the form of ceiling centred in the middle Taking offeringRoom to take offering and eat together GandokSharing blessing for family members The flow of blessing was symbolized by the form of room stretch of floor Kalang obong (special for craftsmen community) Open space to burn wooden doll Yard outside the house complex Eternalize soulEternity of soul meant free from shackle of space and time, symbolized by burning in open space in the yard
1.The interior of Javanese traditional houses in Kotagede could contain ceremonial meal rituals related to the cycle of life (rite de passage) as religious ceremony system which has ever existed in Kotagede in the past. 2. The Interior of Javanese traditional houses in Kotagede could respond to the symbolic meanings of ceremonial meal rituals by the form and hierarchy of rooms. Conclusion Overall, ceremonial meal as a religious ceremony system could be materialized in the interior of Javanese traditional houses in Kotagede.