3 Heredity Meiosis and gametogenesis Eukaryotic chromosomes Inheritance patterns
4 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction: binary fission, regeneration, vegetative propagation, buddingSexual reproduction: result of gametic fusion, gametes formed from meiosis, promotes genetic recombination (variety)Meiosis: process of gametic nuclear transfer
5 Sexual life cyclesRemember: Asexual life cycles do not require the fusion (fertilization) of sperm and egg.
6 Meiosis overviewEach “normal” 2N (diploid) cell has 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each gamete.Gametogenesis: specialized cells (spermatocyte, oocyte) undergoing meiosis to produce gametes with some combination of the 2 chromosome sets
7 Important vocabularyHomologous chromosomes: pair of like chromosomes, having similar length, centromere position, gene lociLinkage group: genes that are linked on the same chromosome (linked loci)Locus (pl. loci): site on chromosome where gene is located on the chromosome
44 TelomeresNecessary to preserve DNA through successive rounds of DNA replication
45 Controlling gene expression Gene expression = transcriptionRNA transcript is translated into amino acid polymer.Operons are examples of prokaryotic gene expression control.Methylation is an example of eukaryotic gene expression control.
46 One enzyme, one protein (controlling gene expression) Beadle and Tatum
55 Point mutationCodon can be mutate due to substitution.
56 Insertion & deletion Frameshift mutation Mutation: spontaneously occurs; basis of variation in populations
57 Viral reproduction Lytic vs. lysogenic life cycle Viruses are not cells.Viruses are particles of nucleic material and protein that requires host cells for reproduction.Bacteriophage: viruses that infect bacteria