Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Exam Review 2003-2004 Heredity and Evolution – 25%"— Presentation transcript:
1AP Biology Exam Review 2003-2004 Heredity and Evolution – 25%
2Heredity and Evolution Molecular Genetics – 9%Evolutionary Biology – 8%
3Heredity Meiosis and gametogenesis Eukaryotic chromosomes Inheritance patterns
4Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction: binary fission, regeneration, vegetative propagation, buddingSexual reproduction: result of gametic fusion, gametes formed from meiosis, promotes genetic recombination (variety)Meiosis: process of gametic nuclear transfer
5Sexual life cyclesRemember: Asexual life cycles do not require the fusion (fertilization) of sperm and egg.
6Meiosis overviewEach “normal” 2N (diploid) cell has 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each gamete.Gametogenesis: specialized cells (spermatocyte, oocyte) undergoing meiosis to produce gametes with some combination of the 2 chromosome sets
7Important vocabularyHomologous chromosomes: pair of like chromosomes, having similar length, centromere position, gene lociLinkage group: genes that are linked on the same chromosome (linked loci)Locus (pl. loci): site on chromosome where gene is located on the chromosome
44TelomeresNecessary to preserve DNA through successive rounds of DNA replication
45Controlling gene expression Gene expression = transcriptionRNA transcript is translated into amino acid polymer.Operons are examples of prokaryotic gene expression control.Methylation is an example of eukaryotic gene expression control.
46One enzyme, one protein (controlling gene expression) Beadle and Tatum
55Point mutationCodon can be mutate due to substitution.
56Insertion & deletion Frameshift mutation Mutation: spontaneously occurs; basis of variation in populations
57Viral reproduction Lytic vs. lysogenic life cycle Viruses are not cells.Viruses are particles of nucleic material and protein that requires host cells for reproduction.Bacteriophage: viruses that infect bacteria