You have Characteristics or traits. Acquired Traits —Reading Skills Inherited Traits —eye color
In sexual reproduction, offspring produced, are NOT identical to their parents. Each parent contributes a cell that contains genetic information
Heredity is the passing of gene from parent to offspring. Most traits are not coded for by just one gene
Different forms of the same gene are called Alleles
There are 46 chromosomes in humans-23 Pairs X and Y are the sex chromosomes 1 X and 1 Y=Males 2X = females
Gregory Mendel is the man. He made important discoveries about heredity. He was monk and studies each trait on a pea plant separately. First Generation Second Generation
Alleles interact to produce traits Phenotype is what we see Dominate Recessive
Genotype is alleles an organism has. You might see them, you might not.
PUNNETT SQUARES Patterns in Heredity can be predicated. Each parent has 2 alleles for a particular gene So Punnett Squares show one way alleles combine to make offspring
In the Punnett Square, each offspring would express the phenotype of dominate alleles.
Percentages and fractions can express the probability of an outcome. Probability is the likelihood of a specific outcome
The purpose of the Punnett Square is to show the probability of each combination of alleles for one offspring A Punnett square only indicates the probability of different outcomes….not specific ones!
There are two steps necessary for sexual reproduction: Meiosis I Meiosis II
Two cells combine for sexual reproduction: N N 2N OFFSPRING / Zygote / Diploid Gamete / Haploid Gamete / Haploid
Gametes are found in reproductive organs of plant and animals cells. Fertilization is the process that takes place when a sperm and egg combine.
DNA AND RNA DNA provides information to the cell to make proteins Remember Proteins: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Amino Acids
MOLECULES PROTEIN Molecules Some amino acids are small 129 Amino Acids Some amino acids are large 3685 Amino Acids DNA and RNA are made up of Nucleic Acids Molecules There are FOUR different types of nucleotides Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine
DNA Remember in Mitosis In Interphase the DNA replicates During replication each strand of DNA is used as a template to produce a copy of the other strand
RNA RNA uses DNAs sequences of bases to link amino acids (Protein Molecule) into chains that form proteins. RNA like DNA is made up of Nucleotides (Nucleic Acid Molecule )
3 TYPES OF RNA tRNA: transfer RNA- it picks up Amino Acids and transfers them to where the chain begins mRNA: messenger RNA- forms a copy of DNA translates rRNA: ribosomal RNA- brings together the two other types of RNA to form a chain of Proteins ( amino acids)