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1 Cognition: Memory and its Parts Thinking and language Chapter 7AP Psychology
2 MemoryMemory: A system that encodes, stores and retrieves information.While we are learning more about memory every day, psychologists still are unsure exactly what parts of the brain are involved and where it is all stored.
3 Memory’s Three Basic Tasks According to the information-processing model, the human brain takes essentially meaningless information and turns it into meaningful patterns.It does this through three steps:EncodingStorageRetrieval
4 3 Basic parts: encodingEncoding: the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system.In most cases, encoding is automatic and happens without our awareness. Other encoding, however, like these notes, require extra encoding effort called elaboration to make the memory useful.
5 EncodingThe more time we spend learning novel information, the more we remember.20151058162432425364Time in minutestaken to relearnlist on day 2Number of repetitions of list on day 1Using 16 unrelated 3 letter sequences
6 Encoding-3 typesWhen we are exposed to stimuli and encode information, we do it in three ways:Semantic Encodingencoding of meaningincluding meaning of wordsAcoustic Encodingencoding of soundespecially sound of wordsVisual Encodingencoding of picture images
7 Encoding-Levels of Processing Processing a word by its meaning (semantic encoding) produces better recognition of it lat a later time.
8 3 basic parts: storageStorage: the retention of encoding material over time.In terms of storing material, we have three stages of memorySensory MemoryWorking Memory (short-term memory)Long-term Memory
9 Synaptic Changes and storage One physical change in the brain during memory storage is in the synapses.Memories begin as impulses whizzing through the brain circuits, leaving a semi-permanent trace.The more a memory is utilized, the more potential strength that neuron has, called long-term potentiation.Neural basis for learning and remembering associationsThis stuff gets super complicated…keep it simple for now
10 Strengthening LtpResearch suggests that the best way to remember things is to study them and then sleep!Once LTP has occurred, even passing an electrical current through the brain will not erase well stored memories.More recent memories will be be wiped outPeople who have a concussion and cannot remember what happened just before or after the injury have not had a chance to “consolidate” their memories to the long-term
11 3 basic parts: retrieval Retrieval: The locating and recovering of information from memory.While some memories return to us in a split second, other seemed to be hidden deeper, and still others are never “recovered” correctly.
12 Eidetic imageryEidetic imagery is a technical term for a photographic memory.Eidetic imagery can recall a memory in minute detail and portray the most interesting and meaningful parts most accurately. These images can last as short as a brief moment, or as long as days.Eidetic imagery tends to be more common in children, and seems to decline as a person’s language abilities increase
13 Attention to important 3 stages of memoryWe encode information and store it in one of three types of memory, depending on what we need the information for.Our memory works like an assembly line, and before information can make it to our long-term memory, it must first pass through sensory memory and working memory.ExternaleventsSensorymemoryShort-termLong-termSensory inputAttention to importantor novel informationEncodingRetrieving
15 Sensory memorySensory memory is the shortest of our memories and generally holds sights, sounds, smells, textures and other sensory information for a fraction of a second.Sensory memory holds a large amount of information, far more than ever reaches consciousness.Sperling’s experiment: letters in rows, tone to indicate which row to recall.Sensory memories lasts just long enough to dissolve into the next one, giving us the impression of a constant flow.
16 Sperling’s Test K Z R Q B T S G N George Sperling flashed a group of letters (see left) for 1/20 of a second. People could recall only about half of the lettersWhen he signaled to recall a particular row immediately after the letters disappeared with a specific tone, they could do so with near- perfect accuracy.KZRQBTSGN
17 Sensory MemoryNot all sensory memory consists of images, each sensory receptor has its own sensory register.Also, sensory images have no meaning associated with them, that is the job of the next stage, working memory.Visual Stimulation-iconic memory Auditory Stimulation-echoic memory Tactile Stimulation-tactile sensory memory Olfactory Stimulation-olfactory memory Gustatory Stimulation-gustatory memoryWorking MemoryLong Term Memory
18 Working MemoryWorking memory is often known as short term memory. It is the place where we sort and encode information before transferring it to long-term memory, or forgetting it.Generally, it holds information for about 20 seconds, far longer than sensory memory.Most research suggest that we can hold seven pieces of information in our working memory, though it varies slightly.
19 Another working memory test Badley’s Three Systems of Working MemoryCentral executive: controls our attention and coordinates working memory for a specific taskPhonological loop: stores and utilizes semantic (word) informationVisuo-spatial sketchpad: stores and utilizes speech based informationLet’s test this system!
20 Working memoryWorking memory is subject to two limitations: limited capacity and short duration.We do have coping mechanisms, however:ChunkingRehearsal
21 Chunking A chunk is any memory pattern or meaningful unit of memory. By creating these chunks, a process called chunking, we can fit more information into the seven available slots of working memory.Example: vs
22 RehearsalAnother memory technique is called maintenance rehearsal. This is a process where information is repeated to keep it from fading while in working memory.This process does not involve active elaboration- assigning meaning to the information.
23 Levels of ProcessingIn working memory, information can be elaborated on, or connected with long term memories.The Levels-of-processing theory says that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory will be remembered better.Levels of Processing Theory
24 Working memory: location While the location in the brain of all three stages of memory are still not fully understood, the likely location for the working memory is in the frontal cortex.
25 Long term memoryAs far as anyone knows, there is no limit to the duration or capacity of the long term memory.Long term memory is essentially all of your knowledge of yourself and the world around you. Unless an injury or illness occurs, this memory is limitless.
26 Structure and Function of LTM Long Term MemoryDeclarative Memory(Explicitly Memory)(knowing what)Semantic Memory:-General Knowledge-language-Facts-Personal ExperiencesEpisodic Memory-EventsProcedural Memory(Implicit Memory)(knowing how)-Classical Conditioning-Operant Conditioning-Motor skillsIncludes:
27 Long Term memoryProcedural memory (implicit) is the part of long term memory where we store memories of how things are done.
28 Long Term memoryDeclarative memory (explicit) is the part of long term memory where we store specific information such as facts and events.More often than procedural memory, declarative memory requires some conscious mental effort.
29 Declarative Memory Declarative memory has two divisions: Episodic Memory: This is the portion of memory that stores personal events or “episodes.”This is the storage of things like time and place.Semantic Memory: This portion of memory stores general knowledge, facts and language meaning.This is specifically where all the information you “know” is stored.
30 Studies: implicit vs. explicit People with amnesia who read a story once, will read it faster a second time, showing implicit memory.There is no explicit memory though as they cannot recall having seen the text beforePeople with Alzheimer's who are repeatedly shown the word perfume will not recall having seen it.If asked the first word that comes to mind in response to the letters per, the say perfume readily displaying learning.
31 Flashbulb memoryOf all our forms of memory, a few are exceptionally clear and vivid. We call these flashbulb memories.These tend to be memories of highly emotional events. Typically people remember exactly where they were when the event happened, what they were doing and the emotions they felt.JFK’s AssassinationEx. 9/11
32 EngramThe engram is the biological basis for long-term memory. It is also known as the memory trace.Psychologists have been trying to identify exactly where exactly memory is stored. There are currently two theories; one involving the neural circuitry and the other at biological changes in synapses.
33 Parts of the brain used in memory Two parts of the brain psychologists know for sure are involved in memory are the hippocampus and the amygdala.In a process called consolidation, information in the working memory is gradually changed over to long term memories.The amygdala seems to play a role in strengthening memories that have strong emotional connections.
34 Two types of forgetting Retrograde Amnesia: The inability to remember information previously stored in memory.Anterograde Amnesia: The inability to form memories from new material.As memories form, neurotransmitters collect at the synapses, (before absolute threshold is crossed). These are called memory traces. A sharp blow to the head, or electric shock can prevent these traces from consolidating, making it hard to recall that information.
35 Types of Amnesia and forgetting Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the development of amnesia.Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create memories after the event that caused the amnesia occurs
36 Types of memoryWhen dealing with long term memory retrieval, there are two types of memory:Implicit memory: a memory that was not deliberately learned-no conscious awarenessEx. Muscle memory—throwing a ballExplicit memory: a memory that had been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled.Ex. The three stages of memoryGeneral rule: a memory is implicit if it can affect behavior or mental processes without becoming fully conscious. Explicit memories always involve consciousness.
37 Retrieval cluesRetrieval clues are the search terms we use to activate memory—think of a Google search. The more specific you are, the better the results will be.Some memories are easily remembered, while others are much harder to bring up. For example, if you draw a blank on a test, it may be a result of the wording on the test not being the same as the wording you used while studying.
38 RECALL AND RECOGNITION Memories can be cued in two ways:Recall: a retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented material.Ex. Essay test; police sketch of a suspectRecognition: a retrieval method in which one must identify information that is provided, which has previously been presented.Ex. Multiple choice test; police line-up
39 Other factors affecting retrieval Encoding specificity principal: the more closely the retrieval clues match way the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered.Think Google searchMood-congruent memory: a theory which says we tend to selectively remember memories that match (are congruent with) our current mood.Has an affect on how people are treated for medical conditions
40 Memory ConstructionWe often construct our memories as we encode them, and we may also alter our memories as we withdraw themWe infer our past from stored information and what we assumeBy filtering information and filling in missing pieces, our schemas (understanding of specific settings) direct our memory construction
41 MisinformationAs memory fades with time following an event, the injection of misinformation becomes easier.Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.Imagination inflation occurs because visualizing something and actually perceiving it activate similar brain areas.
42 Misinformation effect Depiction of actual accidentLeading question:“About how fast were the carsgoing when they smashed intoeach other?”MemoryconstructionEyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned
43 Repressed MemoriesDuring the 1990s, the idea of repressing painful memories became a big topic.While some psychoanalysts still support the idea of repressed memories, most psychologists agree that events that are traumatic are typically etched on the mind as vivid, persistent, haunting memories.
44 forgettingAs you know, not all the information you learn will stick in your brain. According to Daniel Schacter, this is the result of one of the “seven sins of memory:”TransienceAbsent-mindednessBlockingMisattributionSuggestibilityBiasPersistence
45 1) transienceTransience: the impermanence of long-term memories-based on the idea that memories gradually fade in strength over time-also known as “decay theory.”Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting CurveFor most memories, there is a sharp decline in memory, followed by declining rate of loss
46 2) Absent-mindednessAbsent-mindedness: forgetting caused by lapses in attention.Ex. Forgetting where you parked; losing your keys
47 3) blockingBlocking: forgetting when a memory cannot be retrieved because of interference.Proactive Interference: When an old memory disrupts the learning and remembering of a new memory.Ex. Trying to put the dishes away at a new houseRetroactive Memory: When a new memory blocks the retrieval of an old memory.Ex. Driving an automatic after driving a manual
48 Serial Position effect The serial position effect is a form of interference related to the sequence in which material is presented.Generally items in the middle are remembered less.Primacy: relative ease of remembering the first information in a series.Recency: Strong memories of the most recent information in a seriesInfo in the middle is exposed to both retroactively and proactively.
49 Encoding: Serial Position Effect 12Percentage ofwords recalled908070605040302010Position of word in list12345678911Serial Position Effect--tendency to recall best the last items in a listImmediate recallLater recall
50 4) misattributionMisattribution: Memory faults that occur when memories are retrieved, but are associated with the wrong time, place or person.Ex. Psychologist Donald Thompson accused of rape. Alibi was airtight as he was giving a TV interview the victim had been watching just prior to the assault.
51 5) suggestibilitySuggestibility: The process of memory distortion as the result of deliberate or inadvertent suggestion.Eyewitness accounts are one a large part of our legal system. Unfortunately they can be incredibly faulty.With the misinformation effect, memories can be embellished or even created by cues and suggestions.
52 6) biasBias: The influence of personal beliefs, attitudes and experiences on memory.Expectancy Bias: A memory tendency to distort recalled events to fit one’s expectations.Self-consistency Bias: A commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes and beliefs, over time, than we actually are.
53 7) persistencePersistence: A memory problem where unwanted memories cannot be put out of our mind.Depressed people cannot stop thinking about how bad their life is and how unhappy they are. It can create a self-fulfilling problem.Psychologists think that emotions strengthen the physical changes in the synapses that hold our memories, thus highly emotional memories can be harder to put out of mind.
54 Forgetting isn’t all bad According to Schacter, the “seven sins” are actually a normal part of human memory, and are the results of adaptive features in our memories.According to Schacter, each of the “sins” is for a reason:Transience-to prevent memory overloadBlocking-to focus on task at handAbsent-mindedness-ability to shift attentionMisattribution/bias/suggestibility-to focus on meaning and not detailPersistence-to remember especially emotional memories
55 Cognition: language and thinking Chapter 7AP Psychology
56 Language AcquisitionOne of the defining characteristics of humans is the use of complex language-our ability to communicate.Newborn children know zero words in English, or any other language. Yet they have innate abilities to become fluent speakers of any language they hear spoken, or signed regularly.
57 Innateness-Theory of Language According to the innateness-theory of language, children acquire language not only by imitating but also by following preprogrammed steps to acquire language.Noam Chomsky-Language Acquisition Device-LAD: a mental structure that facilitates the learning of language because it is preprogrammed with fundamental language rules.Globally, all children follow the same pattern of language acquisition.LAD is flexible-any language is possible
58 LanguageLanguage is our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning.Phoneme is the smallest distinctive sound unitMorpheme is the smallest unit that carries meaningmay be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)-ed/-d = past tense; -s = pluralGrammar, then, is a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand other
59 LanguageSemantics is the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language.also, the study of meaningSyntax is the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.Do you want to go to the store? vs. Store to go want to do you?
60 Stages of Early language Summary of Language DevelopmentMonth(approximate)Stage410122424+Babbles many speech sounds.Babbling reveals householdslanguage.One-word stage.Two-world, telegraphic speech.Language develops rapidly intocomplete sentences.
61 Language StagesThere are four phases of early speech acquisition that all students pass through:Babbling StageBeginning at 3 to 4 monthsThe stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language, but noises that represent every sound heard in every languageOne-Word StageFrom about age 1 to 2The stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
62 Language Two-Word Stage Telegraphic Speech Beginning about age 2 The stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statementsTelegraphic SpeechEarly speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram- –“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
63 Language New language learning gets harder with age 100 90 80 70 60 50 Native3-78-1011-1517-39Percentagecorrect ongrammartestAge at schoolNew language learning gets harder with age
64 COGNITIONG/THINKINGA concept is a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or peoplePrototype is a mental image or best example of a category-formed on the basis of frequently experienced features.Testing concepts can be hard since they are not observable. We must infer their influence on people’s thinking indirectly by studying their observable side effects.Concept of the color red
65 Types of Concepts There are two types of concepts Natural concepts: imprecise mental classifications that develop out of our everyday experiences.Most of the concepts in our everyday lifeArtificial concepts: concepts defined by a set of rules or characteristics, such as dictionary definition or mathematical equations.Most of the concepts learned in school
66 Cognitive MapsAs we saw before, cognitive maps are mental representations of a given place or situation.Just the mental image is not enough however. Along with the visual cortex, the frontal lobe of the brain provides us with information on the episode, the context and stimulus of a situation.Ex. Answering the phone at a friends house
67 Making InferencesTo help us figure out the episode, the context and stimulus of a situation we do have tools:Schema: General frameworks that provide expectations about topics, events, objects, people and situations.Assimilation vs. AccommodationScript: Schemas about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings.
68 Problem SolvingWhen we are faced with a problem, we have a few options for figuring out a solution.Algorithms: Problem solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome if correctly appliedHeuristics: Simple, basic rules that serve as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks.They do not guarantee a correct solution
69 Algorithms vs. Heuristics UnscrambleS P L O Y O C H Y GAlgorithmall 907,208 combinationsHeuristicthrow out all YY combinationsother heuristics?
70 The Matchstick Problem How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
71 The Three-Jugs Problem Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated?
72 The Candle-Mounting Problem Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
73 Problems with Heuristics One problem with heuristic are mental sets.When faced with problems, we have a tendency to approach it in a familiar way.Especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problemMental set: the tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for previous problems.
74 Problems With Heuristics Another problem with relying on heuristics is called functional fixedness, a sort of mental set issue.Functional Fixedness: The inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose.
75 The Matchstick Problem Solution to the matchstick problem
76 The Three-Jugs Problem Solution:a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume.b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6.
77 The Candle-Mounting Problem Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container
78 Judging and Decision making Along with mental sets, bias can make heuristics a faulty decision making tool.Confirmation biasHindsight bias: Tendency to second guess a decision after the event has happened.Representative bias: Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypeAvailability bias: Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memoryif instances come readily to mind we presume such events are common
79 Why Do We Forget? Decay Theory Interference Theory Motivated Forgetting TheoryEncoding Failure TheoryRetrieval Failure Theory
81 Decay TheoryBased on the assumption that memory, like all biological proceses, degrades with time.Skills and memory are degraded if they are not used for a long period of time.“Use it or lost it” principle in effect.
83 Interference TheoryForgetting is caused by one memory competing with, or trying to replace, another memory.Interference is very strong among memories for similar events or with similear retriveal cues.Research has shown that a great deal of everyday forgetting comes from simple everyday activites and a consolidation failure.Example—learning your new phone number often causes forgetting of your old phone number.
84 Motivated Forgetting Theory An unconscious wish to forget something unpleasant.We tend to forget for a reason.Examples—forgetting the name of a teacher who have you a low grade, your doctor appointment, the embarrasing speech you made in 9th grade English class.