Evolution of identity Movement: no question to national to personal (Freud) to modern crisis (Giddens) to postmodern dissolutions (Turkle?)
Identity crisis Stuart Hall (2000) tries to deconstruct the idea of integral, originary and unified identity: Identities are “increasingly fragmented and fractured; never singular but multiply constructed accross different, often intersecting and antagonistic, discourses, practices and positions. They are subject to a radical historicization, and are constantly in the process of change and transformation.” (Hall, 2000: 17)
essentialist identity Everybody from a country, ethnia, etc. shares a clear authentic set of characteristics with do not alter across time. Often claims of common history or culture Tied to the physical: first territory, later body; i.e. racial or sexual identity Disrupted by: globalization, inmigration, break-ups such as USSR... Attempts to “recover” identity often produced against the threat of “the Other” (such as Islam) (Woodward, 1997: 11-19)
non essencialist identity Identity is relational, difference established by symbolic making Identity maintained through social and material conditions Even biologically grounded identity (such as gender, motherhood, etc) is constructed In postmodern theory, a step forward: dissolution of identity (ex. Turkle) (Woodward, 1997: 12-13)
Identities are produced at particular points in time (i.e. hippies, women’s liberation movements) parameters cut accross each other: class, country, religion, gender... Difference as essential to meaning, dichotomies, ex. Cixous: activity/passivity, culture/nature, father/mother, intelligible/sensitive... Important: divisions not equally weighted Subjectivity: sense of self, then we adopt identity (Woodward, 1997) non essencialist identity II
imaginary identity When we claim the past as an identity we reconstruct it (Caribbeanness) Cultural identity about Becoming, as well as being “Difference”, i.e. how Martinique is and is not French Main point: we are not only positioned by identity, we can also position ourselves and reconstruct and transform historical identities. Hall, 1990
group identities Bourdieu- individuals integrated in “fields”: families, peer groups, work, etc. Each has a material context and symbolic resources. We are the same person but have different roles, performance (Goffman) –Impression given –Impression given off Giddens: modernity “opens up the project of the self” (is it a threat?)
Identity in cyberspace Representation: text, images… not bodies Imaginary identity Play with identity Performance & self- staging
In our courseplan Identitet Fælleskab (group identities) Politik & Etik (class) Sex & Krop (representation, RL-VL) Køn (Gender debate) Subkultur (Identity investment)
Sherry Turkle´s Life on the Screen "Windows have become a powerful metaphor for thinking about the self as a multiple, distributed system," Turkle writes. "The self is no longer simply playing different roles in different settings at different times. The life practice of windows is that of a decentered self that exists in many worlds, that plays many roles at the same time." Now real life itself may be, as one of Turkle's subjects says, "just one more window." Susanne Vega i Second Life
Sherry Turkle´s Life on the Screen - flexible self: multiple fragments interacting with each other -she explores why people play MUDS and what kind of experiments they do with identity - Real life and MUD life blur together along the boundaries "between self and game, self and role, self and simulation"
Alter Ego: Avatars and Their Creators Tracy Spaight & Robbie Cooper 2007 Digital Kultur/02.10/15 Choose your own adventure
Mr Bungle (Julian Dibbell) The play turns to nightmare Virtual and real rape Reactions How real are our avatars?
Digital self-presentation http://www.ikissyou.org/ "I KISS YOU!!!!!!!" "Who is want to come TURKEY I can invitate..... She can stay my home........" "I like music, I have many many music enstrumans my home I can play" "I like to be friendship from different country" (Mahir website, 1999)
Who killed kate modern? Spinoff of Lonelygirl1 5
Identity as connections, relationships, shopping preferences?
Tekst-guides -Cheung: self-representation, construction of identity, negotiation/exploration, becoming, impression given/given off -Stone: you are still a dog on the Internet! About cyberdiscourse.
Til næste uge lÆS –Cavanagh, Allison. 2007. Sociology in the Age of the Internet. –Bakardjieva, Maria. 2003. "Virtual Togetherness: and Everyday-life Perspective". INGEN ØVELSER I NÆSTE UGE!
Bibliography BOURDIEU, P. 1984. Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambrige, MA: Harvard University Press. CIXOUS, H é l è ne. 1975. “ Sorties ” In MARKS, 1980. French Feminisms: an anthology. Amherst: The University of Massachussetts Press. DIBBELL, Julian. “A rape in Cyberspace”. (http://www.juliandibbell.com/texts/bungle.html) GIDDENS, Anthony. “’Modernity and Self-Identity’ Tribulations of the Self”. GOFFMAN, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday. HALL, Stuart. 1990. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora”, in Rutherford, J. (ed). Identity: community, culture, difference. London: Lawrence and Wishart. HALL, Stuart. 2000. “Who needs “identity”?”. In duGay, P. (ed) Identity: a reader. London: Sage TURKLE, Sherry. 1995. Life on the Screen. WOODWARD, Kathryn. 1997. “Concepts of Identity and Difference”. In Identity and Difference. London: Sage.