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Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

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Presentation on theme: "Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace."— Presentation transcript:


2 Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.


4 Iran Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh overthown with help from CIA
He had nationalized Britain’s Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Replaced with the Shah of Iran – loyal to U.S. and renegotiated oil contracts so Americans got 40% of Iran’s oil concessions

5 Israel 1948 – Israel fights off attack by Arab neighbors
Drove thousands of Palestinians from their homes Occupied territory where hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had fled Seized lands far in excess of the terms of the United Nations agreement Arab states refused to recognize Israel’s right to exist and put in place a boycott Palestinians in refugee camps

6 The Suez Crisis:

7 Egypt President Nasser looks to U.S. and Britain for economic aid
Wanted to build a dam on the Nile for electricity and irrigation Nasser announced plans to nationalize the Suez Canal and turns to Soviet Union for aid Eisenhower refuses to intervene and help return canal to British control French, British, Israeli forces attack Egypt – UN and US call for cease-fire and withdrawal of troops After Soviets threaten to intervene of behalf of Egypt and troops leave

8 Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”
Latin America: 1948  O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Truman’s administration. 1954  CIA covert ops. in Guatemala. 1950s  Puerto Rican independence movement. 1959  Castro’s Communist Revolution in Cuba.

9 Guatemala New democracy – attempted land reform & unionization
Challenged long-standing dominance of U.S. based United Fruit Company – take over land they were not using to give to landless peasants Company lobbies Land reform = communism CIA trains antigovernment dissidents based in Honduras

10 Guatemala U.S. Navy stopped ships bound for Guatemala and seized the cargos U.S. military-sponsored invasion – Air Force bombing support Guatemalan citizen seize United Fruit buildings & appeal to UN Eisenhower denies knowledge of CIA activities – really big “black eye” for U.S. as photos of victims published Decades long civil war ensues

11 Indochina Under French control but wants independence
U.S. fears communism Pours in $2.6 billion to aid French Vietminh, Ho Chi Minh, defeat the French in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu Fear domino theory Geneva Accord – divides country at 17th parallel – Ho Chi Minh controls north and Ngo Dihn Diem controls south Diem, former Japanese collaborator, Catholic (90% Buddhist population), corrupt and repressive policies U.S. & UN refuse to hold elections in 1956 – by 1959 South was facing civil war; guerrilla forces

12 Independent Vietnam U.S. actions 1954-1960 Covert CIA activity
Support Diem SEATO – collective security agreement for Southeast Asia – like NATO – U.S., Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines, Pakistan Vietnam is in civil war when Kennedy takes office

13 Military-Industrial Complex
Total influence – “economic, political, even spiritual is felt in every statehouse, every office of the federal government.” “The potential for disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.”

14 Election of 1960 Nixon vs. Kennedy
Just over 100,000 votes from 69 million votes cast - margin of victory Importance of African-American vote Importance of television in electoral politics Camelot

15 New Frontier Liberalism
“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” Funded programs to help rural Appalachia Peace Corps

16 Kennedy & the Cold War As President, Kennedy gave more decision- making power to the White House staff Alliance for Progress – like Marshall Plan for Latin America Increased agricultural productivity but effected little social change

17 Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

18 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint Charlie

19 President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

20 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

21 Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961) Showed Castro had the support of the Cuban people

22 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

23 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

24 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

25 The Missile Crisis Kennedy favored peaceful coexistence
“hot line” set up between Washington & Moscow Negotiation of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Pledge the U.S. would not invade Cuba

26 Assassination of JFK

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