Iran Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh overthown with help from CIA He had nationalized Britains Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Replaced with the Shah of Iran – loyal to U.S. and renegotiated oil contracts so Americans got 40% of Irans oil concessions
Israel 1948 – Israel fights off attack by Arab neighbors Drove thousands of Palestinians from their homes Occupied territory where hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had fled Seized lands far in excess of the terms of the United Nations agreement Arab states refused to recognize Israels right to exist and put in place a boycott Palestinians in refugee camps
Egypt President Nasser looks to U.S. and Britain for economic aid Wanted to build a dam on the Nile for electricity and irrigation Nasser announced plans to nationalize the Suez Canal and turns to Soviet Union for aid Eisenhower refuses to intervene and help return canal to British control French, British, Israeli forces attack Egypt – UN and US call for cease-fire and withdrawal of troops After Soviets threaten to intervene of behalf of Egypt and troops leave
Foreign Policy Hot Spots 1.1948 O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Trumans administration. 2.1954 CIA covert ops. in Guatemala. 3.1950s Puerto Rican independence movement. 4.1959 Castros Communist Revolution in Cuba. Latin America:
Guatemala New democracy – attempted land reform & unionization Challenged long-standing dominance of U.S. based United Fruit Company – take over land they were not using to give to landless peasants Company lobbies Land reform = communism CIA trains antigovernment dissidents based in Honduras
Guatemala U.S. Navy stopped ships bound for Guatemala and seized the cargos U.S. military-sponsored invasion – Air Force bombing support Guatemalan citizen seize United Fruit buildings & appeal to UN Eisenhower denies knowledge of CIA activities – really big black eye for U.S. as photos of victims published Decades long civil war ensues
Indochina Under French control but wants independence U.S. fears communism Pours in $2.6 billion to aid French Vietminh, Ho Chi Minh, defeat the French in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu Fear domino theory Geneva Accord – divides country at 17 th parallel – Ho Chi Minh controls north and Ngo Dihn Diem controls south Diem, former Japanese collaborator, Catholic (90% Buddhist population), corrupt and repressive policies U.S. & UN refuse to hold elections in 1956 – by 1959 South was facing civil war; guerrilla forces
Independent Vietnam U.S. actions 1954-1960 Covert CIA activity Support Diem SEATO – collective security agreement for Southeast Asia – like NATO – U.S., Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines, Pakistan Vietnam is in civil war when Kennedy takes office
Military-Industrial Complex Total influence – economic, political, even spiritual is felt in every statehouse, every office of the federal government. The potential for disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
Election of 1960 Nixon vs. Kennedy Just over 100,000 votes from 69 million votes cast - margin of victory Importance of African-American vote Importance of television in electoral politics Camelot
New Frontier Liberalism Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. Funded programs to help rural Appalachia Peace Corps
Kennedy & the Cold War As President, Kennedy gave more decision- making power to the White House staff Alliance for Progress – like Marshall Plan for Latin America Increased agricultural productivity but effected little social change
Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!