4Iran Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh overthown with help from CIA He had nationalized Britain’s Anglo-Iranian Oil CompanyReplaced with the Shah of Iran – loyal to U.S. and renegotiated oil contracts so Americans got 40% of Iran’s oil concessions
5Israel 1948 – Israel fights off attack by Arab neighbors Drove thousands of Palestinians from their homesOccupied territory where hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had fledSeized lands far in excess of the terms of the United Nations agreementArab states refused to recognize Israel’s right to exist and put in place a boycottPalestinians in refugee camps
7Egypt President Nasser looks to U.S. and Britain for economic aid Wanted to build a dam on the Nile for electricity and irrigationNasser announced plans to nationalize the Suez Canal and turns to Soviet Union for aidEisenhower refuses to intervene and help return canal to British controlFrench, British, Israeli forces attack Egypt – UN and US call for cease-fire and withdrawal of troopsAfter Soviets threaten to intervene of behalf of Egypt and troops leave
8Foreign Policy “Hot Spots” Latin America:1948 O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Truman’s administration.1954 CIA covert ops. in Guatemala.1950s Puerto Rican independence movement.1959 Castro’s Communist Revolution in Cuba.
9Guatemala New democracy – attempted land reform & unionization Challenged long-standing dominance of U.S. based United Fruit Company – take over land they were not using to give to landless peasantsCompany lobbiesLand reform = communismCIA trains antigovernment dissidents based in Honduras
10GuatemalaU.S. Navy stopped ships bound for Guatemala and seized the cargosU.S. military-sponsored invasion – Air Force bombing supportGuatemalan citizen seize United Fruit buildings & appeal to UNEisenhower denies knowledge of CIA activities – really big “black eye” for U.S. as photos of victims publishedDecades long civil war ensues
11Indochina Under French control but wants independence U.S. fears communismPours in $2.6 billion to aid FrenchVietminh, Ho Chi Minh, defeat the French in 1954 at Dien Bien PhuFear domino theoryGeneva Accord – divides country at 17th parallel – Ho Chi Minh controls north and Ngo Dihn Diem controls southDiem, former Japanese collaborator, Catholic (90% Buddhist population), corrupt and repressive policiesU.S. & UN refuse to hold elections in 1956 – by 1959 South was facing civil war; guerrilla forces
12Independent Vietnam U.S. actions 1954-1960 Covert CIA activity Support DiemSEATO – collective security agreement for Southeast Asia – like NATO – U.S., Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines, PakistanVietnam is in civil war when Kennedy takes office
13Military-Industrial Complex Total influence – “economic, political, even spiritual is felt in every statehouse, every office of the federal government.”“The potential for disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.”
14Election of 1960 Nixon vs. Kennedy Just over 100,000 votes from 69 million votes cast - margin of victoryImportance of African-American voteImportance of television in electoral politicsCamelot
15New Frontier Liberalism “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”Funded programs to help rural AppalachiaPeace Corps
16Kennedy & the Cold WarAs President, Kennedy gave more decision- making power to the White House staffAlliance for Progress – like Marshall Plan for Latin AmericaIncreased agricultural productivity but effected little social change
17Paris, 1961Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
18The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie
19President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them! Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!