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Vietnam Introduction. Colonial Vietnam Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Good resources > colonization.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam Introduction. Colonial Vietnam Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Good resources > colonization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam Introduction

2 Colonial Vietnam Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Near China, Laos & Cambodia Good resources > colonization Good resources > colonization Colonial Control Colonial Control China controlled until 1400s China controlled until 1400s Mid-1800s French combined Vietnam with Laos & Cambodia Mid-1800s French combined Vietnam with Laos & Cambodia This was called: French Indochina This was called: French Indochina

3 Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh: considered the “Father of Vietnam” Name means: “He who enlightens” Led Vietnamese Nationalist movement Influenced by China & Soviet Union Believed communism = key to independence

4 WWII & Vietnam Pre- WWII Pre- WWII Japanese occupation during 1930s-40s expansion Japanese occupation during 1930s-40s expansion Vietminh Vietminh Led by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japanese occupation Led by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japanese occupation Created the “League of Independent Vietnam” (or Vietminh) Created the “League of Independent Vietnam” (or Vietminh) Purpose: create an independent Vietnam Purpose: create an independent Vietnam 1945 Japanese Surrender WWII Forced to withdraw from Vietnam Vietminh declares independence U.S. support??

5 Review Which country controlled Vietnam from the mid-1800s – 1900? Which country controlled Vietnam from the mid-1800s – 1900? Which country controlled Vietnam from 1930s- end of WWII? Which country controlled Vietnam from 1930s- end of WWII? Who is considered the “Father of Vietnam”? Who is considered the “Father of Vietnam”?

6 1 st Indochina War France reclaims colony France reclaims colony Dec War begins Dec War begins 1 st Indochina War: France vs. Vietnam 1 st Indochina War: France vs. Vietnam /watch?v=m8rAJJ_ypW8 /watch?v=m8rAJJ_ypW8 /watch?v=m8rAJJ_ypW8 /watch?v=m8rAJJ_ypW8 Containment Containment Truman’s policy Truman’s policy Other Concerns in Asia Other Concerns in Asia Communism in China 1949 Communism in China North Korea invades South Korea 1950 North Korea invades South Korea

7 Domino Theory Eisenhower believes in the Domino Theory The fear that communism will spread to neighboring countries “You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, & what will happen to the last one is a certainty that it will go over very quickly.” By 1954, the U.S. was paying 75%+ of the French cost of war despite losing

8 Review Review: Review: Which president initially pursued the policy of containment & started sending supplies to Vietnam? Which president initially pursued the policy of containment & started sending supplies to Vietnam? Which president believed in the domino theory? Which president believed in the domino theory?

9 In a jungle fight, who would win – the tiger or the elephant? Explain

10 Guerrilla Tactics Guerrilla Warfare Guerrilla Warfare Attack without warning Attack without warning Use terrain/jungle to advantage Use terrain/jungle to advantage “If the tiger ever stands still, the elephant will crush him with his mighty tusks. But the tiger does not stand still… he will leap upon the back of the elephant, tearing huge chunks from his hide, & then the tiger will leap back into the dark jungle. And slowly the elephant will bleed to death. That will be the war of Indochina” Ho Chi Minh “If the tiger ever stands still, the elephant will crush him with his mighty tusks. But the tiger does not stand still… he will leap upon the back of the elephant, tearing huge chunks from his hide, & then the tiger will leap back into the dark jungle. And slowly the elephant will bleed to death. That will be the war of Indochina” Ho Chi Minh =Yl8-dAPCQmQ =Yl8-dAPCQmQ =Yl8-dAPCQmQ =Yl8-dAPCQmQ

11 Dien Bien Phu Last battle in 1 st Indochina War 40,000 Vietnamese surround 15,000 French troops U.S. refuses to rescue (aftermath/influence of Korea) Surrender French surrender May 7, 1954 Vietnam wins

12 Geneva Conference Representatives at the Geneva Conference include: Representatives at the Geneva Conference include: France, Vietnam, Cambodia, Great Britain, Laos, China, Soviet Union, U.S. France, Vietnam, Cambodia, Great Britain, Laos, China, Soviet Union, U.S. Goal of the conference Goal of the conference Peace treaty & arrangement for Indochina’s future Peace treaty & arrangement for Indochina’s future Geneva Accords (July 1954) Geneva Accords (July 1954) Cease fire; temporary division at 17 th parallel (DMZ) Cease fire; temporary division at 17 th parallel (DMZ) Agreed to hold a general election in July 1956 to reunify country Agreed to hold a general election in July 1956 to reunify country Vietminh controls North Vietminh controls North U.S. worried U.S. worried

13 Ngo Dinh Diem Background of Diem Background of Diem Roman Catholic, high-ranking official under French Roman Catholic, high-ranking official under French Refused alliance with Ho Chi Minh after brother assassinated by Vietminh Refused alliance with Ho Chi Minh after brother assassinated by Vietminh Fled to U.S. after assassination attempt; returned to Vietnam in 1954 Fled to U.S. after assassination attempt; returned to Vietnam in 1954 Leadership of Diem Leadership of Diem President of South Vietnam President of South Vietnam Corrupt, brutal leader Corrupt, brutal leader Election of 1955 claimed 98% of votes > vote fraud Election of 1955 claimed 98% of votes > vote fraud

14 Diem’s Government Problems Problems Favored Catholics > upset Buddhist majority Favored Catholics > upset Buddhist majority Gave jobs to family members Gave jobs to family members Land policies hurt peasants Land policies hurt peasants Opponents tortured & imprisoned Opponents tortured & imprisoned What’s happening in the North? What’s happening in the North? Ho Chi Minh totalitarian government but gives land to peasants > wide-spread support Ho Chi Minh totalitarian government but gives land to peasants > wide-spread support

15 Civil War Late 1950s, Diem’s opponents openly revolt Late 1950s, Diem’s opponents openly revolt Vietminh (in South Vietnam) forms National Liberation Front (NLF) known as the Vietcong (VC) to try to overthrow Diem Vietminh (in South Vietnam) forms National Liberation Front (NLF) known as the Vietcong (VC) to try to overthrow Diem 1960 Ho Chi Minh tries to reunify country under communism 1960 Ho Chi Minh tries to reunify country under communism


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