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Vietnam Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam Introduction

2 Colonial Vietnam Southeast Asia Colonial Control
Near China, Laos & Cambodia Good resources > colonization Colonial Control China controlled until 1400s Mid-1800s French combined Vietnam with Laos & Cambodia This was called: French Indochina

3 Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh: considered the “Father of Vietnam”
Name means: “He who enlightens” Led Vietnamese Nationalist movement Influenced by China & Soviet Union Believed communism = key to independence

4 WWII & Vietnam Pre- WWII Vietminh 1945 Japanese Surrender WWII
Japanese occupation during 1930s-40s expansion Vietminh Led by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japanese occupation Created the “League of Independent Vietnam” (or Vietminh) Purpose: create an independent Vietnam 1945 Japanese Surrender WWII Forced to withdraw from Vietnam Vietminh declares independence U.S. support??

5 Review Which country controlled Vietnam from the mid-1800s – 1900?
Which country controlled Vietnam from 1930s- end of WWII? Who is considered the “Father of Vietnam”?

6 1st Indochina War France reclaims colony Containment
Dec War begins 1st Indochina War: France vs. Vietnam Containment Truman’s policy Other Concerns in Asia Communism in China 1949 1950 North Korea invades South Korea

7 Domino Theory Eisenhower believes in the Domino Theory
The fear that communism will spread to neighboring countries “You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, & what will happen to the last one is a certainty that it will go over very quickly.” By 1954, the U.S. was paying 75%+ of the French cost of war despite losing

8 Review Review: Which president initially pursued the policy of containment & started sending supplies to Vietnam? Which president believed in the domino theory?

9 In a jungle fight, who would win – the tiger or the elephant? Explain

10 Guerrilla Tactics Guerrilla Warfare Attack without warning
Use terrain/jungle to advantage “If the tiger ever stands still, the elephant will crush him with his mighty tusks. But the tiger does not stand still… he will leap upon the back of the elephant, tearing huge chunks from his hide, & then the tiger will leap back into the dark jungle. And slowly the elephant will bleed to death. That will be the war of Indochina” Ho Chi Minh

11 Dien Bien Phu Dien Bien Phu Surrender Last battle in 1st Indochina War
40,000 Vietnamese surround 15,000 French troops U.S. refuses to rescue (aftermath/influence of Korea) Surrender French surrender May 7, 1954 Vietnam wins

12 Geneva Conference Representatives at the Geneva Conference include:
France, Vietnam, Cambodia, Great Britain, Laos, China, Soviet Union, U.S. Goal of the conference Peace treaty & arrangement for Indochina’s future Geneva Accords (July 1954) Cease fire; temporary division at 17th parallel (DMZ) Agreed to hold a general election in July 1956 to reunify country Vietminh controls North U.S. worried

13 Ngo Dinh Diem Background of Diem Leadership of Diem
Roman Catholic, high-ranking official under French Refused alliance with Ho Chi Minh after brother assassinated by Vietminh Fled to U.S. after assassination attempt; returned to Vietnam in 1954 Leadership of Diem President of South Vietnam Corrupt, brutal leader Election of 1955 claimed 98% of votes > vote fraud

14 Diem’s Government Problems What’s happening in the North?
Favored Catholics > upset Buddhist majority Gave jobs to family members Land policies hurt peasants Opponents tortured & imprisoned What’s happening in the North? Ho Chi Minh totalitarian government but gives land to peasants > wide-spread support

15 Civil War Late 1950s, Diem’s opponents openly revolt
Vietminh (in South Vietnam) forms National Liberation Front (NLF) known as the Vietcong (VC) to try to overthrow Diem 1960 Ho Chi Minh tries to reunify country under communism

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