2Colonial Vietnam Southeast Asia Colonial Control Near China, Laos & CambodiaGood resources > colonizationColonial ControlChina controlled until 1400sMid-1800s French combined Vietnam with Laos & CambodiaThis was called: French Indochina
3Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh: considered the “Father of Vietnam” Name means: “He who enlightens”Led Vietnamese Nationalist movementInfluenced by China & Soviet UnionBelieved communism = key to independence
4WWII & Vietnam Pre- WWII Vietminh 1945 Japanese Surrender WWII Japanese occupation during 1930s-40s expansionVietminhLed by Ho Chi Minh to resist Japanese occupationCreated the “League of Independent Vietnam” (or Vietminh)Purpose: create an independent Vietnam1945 Japanese Surrender WWIIForced to withdraw from VietnamVietminh declares independenceU.S. support??
5Review Which country controlled Vietnam from the mid-1800s – 1900? Which country controlled Vietnam from 1930s- end of WWII?Who is considered the “Father of Vietnam”?
61st Indochina War France reclaims colony Containment Dec War begins1st Indochina War: France vs. VietnamContainmentTruman’s policyOther Concerns in AsiaCommunism in China 19491950 North Korea invades South Korea
7Domino Theory Eisenhower believes in the Domino Theory The fear that communism will spread to neighboring countries“You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, & what will happen to the last one is a certainty that it will go over very quickly.”By 1954, the U.S. was paying 75%+ of the French cost of war despite losing
8ReviewReview:Which president initially pursued the policy of containment & started sending supplies to Vietnam?Which president believed in the domino theory?
9In a jungle fight, who would win – the tiger or the elephant? Explain
10Guerrilla Tactics Guerrilla Warfare Attack without warning Use terrain/jungle to advantage“If the tiger ever stands still, the elephant will crush him with his mighty tusks. But the tiger does not stand still… he will leap upon the back of the elephant, tearing huge chunks from his hide, & then the tiger will leap back into the dark jungle. And slowly the elephant will bleed to death. That will be the war of Indochina” Ho Chi Minh
11Dien Bien Phu Dien Bien Phu Surrender Last battle in 1st Indochina War 40,000 Vietnamese surround 15,000 French troopsU.S. refuses to rescue (aftermath/influence of Korea)SurrenderFrench surrender May 7, 1954Vietnam wins
12Geneva Conference Representatives at the Geneva Conference include: France, Vietnam, Cambodia, Great Britain, Laos, China, Soviet Union, U.S.Goal of the conferencePeace treaty & arrangement for Indochina’s futureGeneva Accords (July 1954)Cease fire; temporary division at 17th parallel (DMZ)Agreed to hold a general election in July 1956 to reunify countryVietminh controls NorthU.S. worried
13Ngo Dinh Diem Background of Diem Leadership of Diem Roman Catholic, high-ranking official under FrenchRefused alliance with Ho Chi Minh after brother assassinated by VietminhFled to U.S. after assassination attempt; returned to Vietnam in 1954Leadership of DiemPresident of South VietnamCorrupt, brutal leaderElection of 1955 claimed 98% of votes > vote fraud
14Diem’s Government Problems What’s happening in the North? Favored Catholics > upset Buddhist majorityGave jobs to family membersLand policies hurt peasantsOpponents tortured & imprisonedWhat’s happening in the North?Ho Chi Minh totalitarian government but gives land to peasants > wide-spread support
15Civil War Late 1950s, Diem’s opponents openly revolt Vietminh (in South Vietnam) forms National Liberation Front (NLF) known as the Vietcong (VC) to try to overthrow Diem1960 Ho Chi Minh tries to reunify country under communism