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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Defining Motivation, and a Model Dynamics of behavior; the ways in which actions are initiated, sustained, directed, and terminated

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 A Model of Motivation Model of how motivated activities work –Need: Internal deficiency; causes drive –Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hunger, thirst; activates a response) –Response: Action or series of actions designed to attain a goal –Goal: Target of motivated behavior

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Types of Motives Incentive Value: Goal’s appeal beyond its ability to fill a need Primary Motive: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs that must be met to survive Stimulus Motive: Needs for stimulation and information; appear to be innate, but not necessary for survival Secondary Motive: Based on learned needs, drives, and goals

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.1

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Hunger: Big Mac Attack? Homeostasis: Body equilibrium; balance Hypothalamus: Brain structure; regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, including hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior Feeding System: Area in the hypothalamus that, when stimulated, initiates eating Satiety System: Area in the hypothalamus that terminates eating

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.3

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.4

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 More on Eating Behavior (Hungry Yet?) Neuropeptide Y (NPY): Substance in the brain that initiates eating Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance in brain that terminates eating Set Point: Proportion of body fat that is maintained by changes in hunger and eating; point where weight stays the same when you make no effort to gain or lose weight

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 The Final Word on Eating Behavior Leptin: Substance released by fat cells that inhibits eating External Eating Cues: External stimuli that tend to encourage hunger or elicit eating; these cues may cause you to eat even if you are stuffed (like Homer Simpson, who eats whatever he sees!) –Signs and signals linked with food

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.6

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.7

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Behavioral Dieting Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits and not on temporary self- starvation Some keys –Start with a complete physical –Exercise –Be committed to weight loss

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Behavioral Dieting (cont.) Observe yourself, keep an eating diary, and keep a chart of daily progress Eat based on hunger, not on taste or learned habits that tell you to always clean your plate Avoid snacks Learn to weaken personal eating cues

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Taste Taste Aversion: Active dislike for a particular food –VERY difficult to overcome

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa Active self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that seems to have psychological origins –Control issues seem to be involved –Very difficult to effectively treat –Overwhelmingly affects adolescent females

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Anorexia Nervosa

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa Excessive eating (binging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives –Difficult to treat –Prozac approved by FDA to treat bulimia nervosa –Overwhelmingly affects females

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Anorectics and bulimics have exaggerated fears of becoming fat; they think they are fat when the opposite is true! Bulimics are obsessed with food and weight; anorectics with perfect control Anorectics will often be put on a “weight-gain” diet to restore weight

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Thirst Extracellular Thirst: When water is lost from fluids surrounding the cells of your body –Best satisfied by drinking slightly salty liquid Intracellular Thirst: When fluid is drawn out of cells because of increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell –Best satisfied by drinking water

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Pain Avoidance An episodic drive: –Distinct episodes when bodily damage takes place or is about to occur

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Sex Drive Estrus: Changes in animals that create a desire for sex; females in heat Estrogen: A female sex hormone Androgens: Male sex hormones

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Stimulus Drives Reflect needs for information, exploration, manipulation, and sensory input Assumes that people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, level of arousal Arousal: Activation of the body and nervous system Sensation Seeking: Trait of people who prefer high levels of stimulation (e.g., the contestants on “Fear Factor”)

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Yerkes-Dodson Law If a task is simple, it is best for arousal to be high; if it is complex, lower levels of arousal provide for the best performance

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.9

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 How to Cope with Test Anxiety Preparation Relaxation Rehearsal Restructuring thoughts

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Learned Motives Social Motives: Acquired by growing up in a particular society or culture Need for Achievement (nAch): Desire to meet or exceed some internal standard of excellence Need for Power: Desire to have impact or control over others

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Human Needs: Maslow’s ordering of needs based on presumed strength or potency; some needs are more powerful than others and thus will influence your behavior to a greater degree

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Maslow’s Human Needs Basic Needs: First four levels of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy –Lower needs tend to be more potent (“prepotent”) than higher needs Growth Needs: Higher-level needs associated with self-actualization Meta-Needs: Needs associated with impulses for self-actualization

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.10

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Types of Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming from within, not from external rewards; based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity Extrinsic Motivation: Based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Emotions State characterized by physiological arousal and changes in facial expressions, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings Adaptive Behaviors: Actions that aid our attempts to survive and adjust to changing conditions Physiological Changes (In emotions): Include heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary responses

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 More Terms to Know Adrenaline: Hormone produced by adrenal glands that arouses the body Emotional Expressions: Outward signs of what a person is feeling Emotional Feelings: A person’s private emotional experience

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Primary Emotions and Mood Eight primary emotions (Plutchik, 2001) –Fear –Surprise –Sadness –Disgust

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Primary Emotions and Mood Concluded –Anger –Anticipation –Joy –Trust Mood: Low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.11

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.12

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Brain and Emotion Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): Neural system that connects brain with internal organs and glands Sympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that activates body for emergency action Parasympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that quiets body and conserves energy –Parasympathetic Rebound: Overreaction to intense emotion

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.13

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Lie Detectors Polygraph: Device that records changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response (GSR); lie detector GSR: Measures sweating

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Types of Polygraph Questions Irrelevant Questions: Neutral, emotional questions in a polygraph test Relevant Questions: Questions to which only someone guilty should react Control Questions: Questions that almost always provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g., “Have you ever taken any office supplies?”)

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Body Language (Kinesics) Study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial expressions Emotional Tone: Underlying emotional state Facial Blends: Mix of two or more basic expressions

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Three Types of Facial Expressions Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Degree to which a person is experiencing pleasure or displeasure Attention-Rejection: Degree of attention given to a person or object Activation: Degree of arousal a person is experiencing

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.15

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory: Emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal Cannon-Bard Theory: The thalamus (in brain) causes emotional feelings and bodily arousal to occur simultaneously

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Schachter’s Cognitive Theory Emotions occur when physical arousal is labeled or interpreted on the basis of experience and situational cues

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Attribution Attribution: Mental process of assigning causes to events; attributing arousal to a certain source Facial Feedback Hypothesis: Sensations from facial expressions and becoming aware of them is what leads to the emotion someone feels

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.17

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 A Modern View of Emotion Emotional Appraisal: Evaluating personal meaning of a stimulus or situation Emotional Intelligence: Emotional competence, including empathy, self-control, self-awareness, and other skills

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Critical Emotional Intelligence Skills Self-awareness Empathy Managing emotions Understanding emotions

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 More Critical Emotional Skills Using emotions Emotional flexibility

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 10 Figure 10.19


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