Presentation on theme: "Defining Organizational Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1Defining Organizational Behavior The field of organizational behavior traces its roots back to the late 1940s when researchers in psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and other social sciences joined together in an effort to develop a comprehensive body of organizational researchIt is now divided into three distinct subfields
2What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational Behavior is the study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction (cooperate ,work together ) between people and the organization with the intent (aim,goal,target) to understand and predict (expect) human behavior.
3Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory Organizational behavior and organizational theory specialize in studying organizationsOrganizational behavior: understanding behavior, attitudes, and performanceOrganizational theory: design and structure of organizations
4Organizational Behavior Definition: The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance in organizations.Value of OB: Helps people attain the competencies needed to become effective employees, team leaders/members, or managersCompetency = an interrelated set of abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge needed by an individual to be effective in most professional and managerial positions
5Organizational Behavior The field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational settings through the use of the scientific method.Characteristics of the field:OB applies the scientific method to practical managerial problems.OB focuses on three levels of analysis.OB is multidisciplinary in nature.OB seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and the quality of life at work.
6OB is not Human Resources Management (HRM) HRM is an organizational function responsible for staffing issuesOB is not a function, it is a set of organization-wide processes
7Micro level & Macro level OB Micro Level OBIndividual,Interpersonal andGroup BehaviorsMacro Level OBHow human systems and organized, structured and controlledAlso called organizational theory
8Micro Organizational Behavior Micro organizational behavior is concerned mainly with the behaviors of individuals working aloneThree subfields of psychology were the principal contributors to the beginnings of micro organizational behavior:Experimental psychology: provided theories of learning, motivation, perception, and stressClinical psychology: furnished models of personality and human developmentIndustrial psychology: offered theories of employee selection, workplace attitudes, and performance assessment
9Meso Organizational Behavior Meso organizational behavior is a middle ground, bridging the other two subfields of organizational behaviorIt focuses primarily on understanding the behaviors of people working together in teams or groupsIn addition to sharing the origins of the other two subfields, meso organizational behavior grew out of research in the fields of communication, social psychology, and interactionist sociology
10Macro Organizational Behavior Macro organizational behavior focuses on understanding the behaviors of entire organizationsThe origins of macro organizational behavior can be traced to four disciplines:Sociology: provided theories of structure, social status, and institutional relationsPolitical science: offered theories of power, conflict, bargaining, and controlAnthropology: contributed theories of symbolism, cultural influence, and comparative analysisEconomics: furnished theories of competition and efficiency
11Why Study Organizational Behavior? Success isn’t a destination – it’s a process. And the margin between successes is often small. Learn the principles of defining and achieving success in your own life and begin the journey today.This journey begins with understanding the behaviors between the leader, the followers, and the organization.This is also a leadership course of study. To be successful leader, one needs to understand the behaviors of people, organizations, and the situation.
13Organizational Behavior Does organizational behavior (OB) require a systematic study ?Many people think OB is just common sense.Some would add OB is just intuition.
14Intuition versus Common Sense Common Sense DefinedThe unreflective opinion of ordinary men and women, unsophisticated judgment.Intuition DefinedA feeling not necessarily supported by research.
15Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field PsychologySociologySocial PsychologyAnthropologyPolitical ScienceThis material is found in more detail on pages 15-16Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals.Sociology: Whereas psychologists focus on the individual, sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies people in relation to other human beings.Social psychology is an area within psychology, but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social psychologists has been change--how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. processes.Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behaviour between people in different countries and within different organizations.Political science studies the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern include structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and the manipulation of power for individual self-interest.
17Organizational Behavior Key conceptspromotes employee effectiveness through understanding of individual, group, and organizational processesstresses relationships among employees/managersassumes employees want to work and can control themselvesContributionsincreased participation, greater autonomy, individual challenge and initiative, and enriched jobs may increase participationrecognized the importance of developing human resourcesLimitationssome approaches ignored situational factors, such as the environment and technology
18KEY ELEMENTS IN ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR KEY ELEMENTS IN ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR * People join together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure is required. * People use technology to help get the job done, so there is an interaction. * These elements are influenced by external environment and they influenced it.
19Organizations and OBWhat is changing that requires a more systematic study?OrganizationsDiversityGlobal competitionTechnology’s influence on behaviorSociety – social changes
20Organizational Behavior Human behavior depends on contingencies.Behavior can be predicted, but you have to understand the circumstances.Understanding circumstances and predicting behavior require a systematic study.
21Basic OB Model Independent Variables Dependent Variables Organizational LevelPRODUCTIVITYABSENTEESIMGroup LevelTURNOVERIndividual LevelJOB SATISFACTION
27Contemporary IssuesThe three subfields of organizational behavior offers valuable information, insight, and advice to managers facing the challenge of understanding and reacting to a broad range of contemporary management issuesToday’s managers find four of these issues especially important
28Contemporary Issues Workforce Diversity Team Productivity Organizational AdaptabilityInternational Growth and Development
29Contemporary Issues: Workforce Diversity Within the societal cultures of the United States and Canada, subcultural differences once ignored by many managers now command significant attention and sensitivityHistorically, the North American workforce has consisted primarily of white males; however today white males make up only about 15% of business new hires in the U.S., whereas women, African American, Hispanic, and Asian men account for increasingly large segments of the U.S. workforceKnowledge about the workplace consequences of these differences, drawn from the subfield of micro organizational behavior, can provide managers with help in this regard
30Contemporary Issues: Team Productivity Management is becoming less of a process relying on top-down command and controlFor various reasons organizations now use greater amounts of empowermentOften empowerment is accomplished by grouping employees into teams, then giving those teams responsibility for self-management activitiesGuidance from the meso organizational behavior precepts can help managers establish realistic expectations about the implementation difficulties and probable effects of team-based empowerment
31Contemporary Issues: Organizational Adaptability In today’s business world, emphasis is shifting from mass production of low-cost, interchangeable commodities to the production of high-quality goods and services, made individually or in small batches and geared to meet the specific demands of small groups of consumersCompanies are reacting by implementing programs that require new ways of dividing an organization’s work into jobs and coordinating the efforts of many employeesImplementations of this sort benefit from insights derived from macro organizational behavior6
32Contemporary Issues: International Growth and Development Fewer firms today limit their operations to a single national or cultural region than was once the caseMultinationalism or even statelessness has become the normThe resulting globalization is changing the way business is conducted and it promises to continue to do so at an increasing paceAll three subfields of organizational behavior have valuable advice to offer managers confronted with this challenge