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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Language and Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Language and Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Language and Education

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Language and Education Mastering Language –Phonology: the sound system –Morphology: forming words from sounds –Syntax: grammar (sentences from words) –Semantics: meaning –Pragmatics: context appropriate use –Nonverbal: face, tone, gestures

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Language Development Prelinguistic abilities –First sounds and feedback –Vocalizations (6-8 weeks) –Babbling (4-6 months) –Home language sounds (8 months) –Comprehension before production –Joint attention

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 First Words First Year –Holophrases: single words –Nonverbal information –Intonation: question, request, demand –Nouns first (naming) 18 months: vocabulary spurt words 24 months: 186 words Wide individual differences

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 First Mistakes Two-year olds –Overextension: too broad –Underextension: too narrow –Overregularization: applying rules “foots” or “goed” Found in other languages Suggests an understanding of grammatical rules

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Two-Year Olds Telegraphic speech: Critical content only –2+ word utterances Functional grammar –Semantic relations expressed –Context important Rules inferred from adult speech Age 2-5: Transformational grammar –“Billy hit” vs. “hit Billy”

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Figure 10.2

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Later Language Development First grade: 10,000 words Abstract terms by adolescence Metalinguistic awareness Adulthood –Expanded vocabulary –Refine pragmatics

10 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 How Language Develops Learning Theory –Accounts for phonology and semantics –Cannot account for syntax or novelty Nativist _ LAD _ inborn mechanism Universality of stages and errors Genetic evidence - Twins Interactionist perspective

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Critical or Sensitive Period Critical period argument –Younger learn more easily- all languages –Deaf children –Second language learners Sensitive period –Earlier is better

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Mastery Motivation Typical of infants Individual differences Parents must provide –Sensory stimulation –Responsive environment Early education: not necessary –Important for disadvantaged children

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Achievement Motivation by Age 7 Mastery orientation –Success: attribution is internal and stable –Failure: external factors –Learning goals Learned helplessness –Success: attribution is external (luck) –Failure: internal and stable –Performance goals

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Contributions to Achievement Motivation Infancy –Stimulating, responsive environment –Independence and self-reliance –Set high standards –Parental involvement School age –De-emphasize grades –Focus on learning

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Learning to Read Alphabetic principle –Printed words related to sounds –Phonological awareness: decoding Emergent literacy –Reading to preschoolers –Repetitious reading and rhymes –Questions

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Skilled vs. Unskilled Readers Skilled readers –Understand the phonetic alphabet –Eyes hit all the words –Rely on phonology - not context - to identify words Unskilled readers –Low levels of phonological awareness –Eyes skip words and parts of words

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Teaching Reading Phonics (code oriented) –Analyze words for sounds –Sound-letter correspondence Whole-word method (look-say) –Read for meaning Research supports phonics

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Effective Schools Less important factors –Increased resources (reasonable) –Average class size (18-40) –Ability grouping: no advantage Factors that matter –Student aptitude –Task-oriented classes; discipline enforced –Parental involvement

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 The Adolescent in School Declining achievement and self-esteem Negative school attitudes Critical juncture: middle school Risk factors –Minority group, mother’s educational level and mental health –Stressful life events, family size, father absence

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Why Achievement Drops Family characteristics Cognitive growth Negative feedback –Younger are praised for effort alone Peer pressures which discourage academic achievement esp. low income minority peers Puberty Poor person-environment fit

22 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Science and Math Education Cultural differences: Asian-US students compared –More time in school and on task –More homework –Committed parents –Peers: high values and standards –Belief in hard work and effort

23 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10

24 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 Work and School Students working 20+ hours per week –Lower GPA –Disengaged and bored –Alienation and anxiety Other findings –Lower math and science achievement –More likely to use alcohol and drugs

25 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10

26 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 10 The Adult Achievement motivation stable –Affected by education, type of work, and family situations Literacy: 22% at 3 rd grade level –US has more high level and more low level –Related to poverty Continuing Education –15 million aged 25+ enrolled in college


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