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Chapter 10 Language and Education

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1 Chapter 10 Language and Education

2 Chapter 10: Language and Education
Mastering Language Phonology: the sound system Morphology: forming words from sounds Syntax: grammar (sentences from words) Semantics: meaning Pragmatics: context appropriate use Nonverbal: face, tone, gestures

3 Language Development Prelinguistic abilities First sounds and feedback Vocalizations (6-8 weeks) Babbling (4-6 months) Home language sounds (8 months) Comprehension before production Joint attention


5 First Words First Year Holophrases: single words Nonverbal information Intonation: question, request, demand Nouns first (naming) 18 months: vocabulary spurt words 24 months: 186 words Wide individual differences

6 First Mistakes Two-year olds Overextension: too broad Underextension: too narrow Overregularization: applying rules “foots” or “goed” Found in other languages Suggests an understanding of grammatical rules

7 Two-Year Olds Telegraphic speech: Critical content only 2+ word utterances Functional grammar Semantic relations expressed Context important Rules inferred from adult speech Age 2-5: Transformational grammar “Billy hit” vs. “hit Billy”

8 Figure 10.2 The language acquisition device (LAD).

9 Later Language Development
First grade: 10,000 words Abstract terms by adolescence Metalinguistic awareness Adulthood Expanded vocabulary Refine pragmatics

10 How Language Develops Learning Theory Accounts for phonology and semantics Cannot account for syntax or novelty Nativist _ LAD _ inborn mechanism Universality of stages and errors Genetic evidence - Twins Interactionist perspective

11 Critical or Sensitive Period
Critical period argument Younger learn more easily- all languages Deaf children Second language learners Sensitive period Earlier is better

12 Mastery Motivation Typical of infants Individual differences Parents must provide Sensory stimulation Responsive environment Early education: not necessary Important for disadvantaged children

13 Achievement Motivation by Age 7
Mastery orientation Success: attribution is internal and stable Failure: external factors Learning goals Learned helplessness Success: attribution is external (luck) Failure: internal and stable Performance goals


15 Contributions to Achievement Motivation
Infancy Stimulating, responsive environment Independence and self-reliance Set high standards Parental involvement School age De-emphasize grades Focus on learning

16 Learning to Read Alphabetic principle Printed words related to sounds Phonological awareness: decoding Emergent literacy Reading to preschoolers Repetitious reading and rhymes Questions

17 Skilled vs. Unskilled Readers
Understand the phonetic alphabet Eyes hit all the words Rely on phonology - not context - to identify words Unskilled readers Low levels of phonological awareness Eyes skip words and parts of words

18 Teaching Reading Phonics (code oriented) Analyze words for sounds Sound-letter correspondence Whole-word method (look-say) Read for meaning Research supports phonics

19 Effective Schools Less important factors Increased resources (reasonable) Average class size (18-40) Ability grouping: no advantage Factors that matter Student aptitude Task-oriented classes; discipline enforced Parental involvement

20 The Adolescent in School
Declining achievement and self-esteem Negative school attitudes Critical juncture: middle school Risk factors Minority group, mother’s educational level and mental health Stressful life events, family size, father absence

21 Why Achievement Drops Family characteristics Cognitive growth Negative feedback Younger are praised for effort alone Peer pressures which discourage academic achievement esp. low income minority peers Puberty Poor person-environment fit

22 Science and Math Education
Cultural differences: Asian-US students compared More time in school and on task More homework Committed parents Peers: high values and standards Belief in hard work and effort


24 Work and School Students working 20+ hours per week Lower GPA Disengaged and bored Alienation and anxiety Other findings Lower math and science achievement More likely to use alcohol and drugs


26 The Adult Achievement motivation stable Affected by education, type of work, and family situations Literacy: 22% at 3rd grade level US has more high level and more low level Related to poverty Continuing Education 15 million aged 25+ enrolled in college

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