Presentation on theme: "What will it take to get all children with disabilities enrolled in school? Presentation for World Bank Staff 26 th June 2024 Richard Rieser World of Inclusion."— Presentation transcript:
What will it take to get all children with disabilities enrolled in school? Presentation for World Bank Staff 26 th June 2024 Richard Rieser World of Inclusion Ltd www.worldofinclusion.com
Global Campaign for Education Focus in 2014 on getting children with disabilities into school Of 57 million still not in school may be as many as 33%- 40%* are Children with Disabilities CWD In Malawi and Tanzania, a CWD is twice as likely to have never attended school as a child without a disability. In Burkina Faso, having a disability increases the risk of children being out of school by two and a half times. In Bolivia it is estimated that 95% of the population aged 6 to 11 years are in school, while only 38% of children with disabilities are. In Ethiopia, according to the Ministry of Education, fewer than 3% of children with disabilities have access to primary education, and access to schooling decreases rapidly as children move up the education ladder. In Nepal, 85% of all children out of school are disabled. *LCD evidence to UK Joint Human Rights Committee and Global Campaign for Education 2014
World Report on Disability 2011 We do not have accurate and disaggregated data. According to the World Report on Disability approximately one billion people in the world are living with a disability(15%), with at least 1 in 10 being children and 80% living in developing countries. It is estimated that 93 million of these are children – or 1 in 20 of those aged up to 14 years of age – living with a moderate or severe disability.
Source Filmer,D- Disability, poverty and schooling in developing countries 14 household surveys The World Bank Economic Review 2008 Proportion of 6-11 year olds in school with and without disabilities
For CWD who make it to school- The quality of education is poor, often segregated It is not adapted to their needs The materials are not accessible The teachers have negative attitudes and do not feel prepared to teach them Parents don’t see the point in continuing their education Peers can harass if not challenged Overall, even in countries with high primary school enrolment rates, disabled children are more likely to drop out of school than any other vulnerable group, including girls, those living in rural areas or low-income children.[GPE-November 4 th 2013 blog] World Bank(2004) India 5 times more likely than other groups
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES DEC. 2006:A NEW PARADIGM CENTERED ON THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY To From Medical Model of Disability Problem in the Person. Cure, Fix or Separate To Social Model of Disability based on Human Rights approach- Problem with Society that needs to be changed. Attitudes Organisation Environment 158 signatories to the Convention 147 ratifications of the Convention Optional Protocol 92 signatories 82 ratifications
Shifting the Focus at UN “Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept and that disability results from the interaction of persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” Paradigm Shift -Persons with disabilities are not viewed as "objects" of charity, medical treatment and social protection; rather as "subjects" with rights, who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as well as being active members of society. http://www.un.org/disabilities/
Is bewitched, evil or a punishment Can’t get to school, or get in, or around the building Can’t keep up with the class Does not understand Will be bullied by the other children Needs specialist teaching/help Is contagious Wastes scarce resources Is not like the other children Needs to be kept away from the other children Individual/Medical/Charity Model Problem in the Person
Social /Human Rights Model Problem in Society-Address barriers of attitude, environment and organisation Address negative attitudes and superstition Rigid methods, curriculum and assessment Inaccessible buildings and environments Improve quality of teaching to prevent drop-out Provide teachers and schools with training and support Inform and Involve Parents Make and provide aids and equipment Reduce costs to pupil and family Provide person centred and functional assessment and plan Develop expertise in alternative communication
UNCRPD Article 24 Education Requires all signatories to ensure all disabled children and young people can fully participate in the state education system and that this should be an ‘inclusive education system at all levels’ The development by persons with disabilities of their personality, talents and creativity, as well as their mental and physical abilities, to their fullest potential. This right is to be delivered within an inclusive primary and secondary education system, from which disabled people should not be excluded. Reasonable accommodations should be provided for individual requirements and support provided in individualised programmes to facilitate their effective social and academic education.
UNCRPD Article 24 Education -2 Instruction in Braille, Sign language AAC Employment of disabled teachers Train professionals and staff who work at all levels of education. Such training shall incorporate disability awareness and the use of appropriate augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, educational techniques and materials to support persons with disabilities Article 8 b-Awareness Raising ‘Fostering at all levels of the education system, including in all children from an early age, an attitude of respect for the rights of persons with disabilities’
Putting the Paradigm Shift into Practice in Education Special needs or special education purposely not mentioned in UNCRPD Special education in developed countries, but also in developing countries, can help create and reiterate negative stereotypes towards students and persons with disabilities. Additionally, the removal of children with disabilities from the mainstream education denies students without disabilities access to the experience of disability, which in turn perpetuates ignorance and stigma. The social model of disability reflected in the CRPD, recognizing the combination of a person’s impairment situated in a discriminating society, requires changing the social system, which includes the education system. Special education today reproduces the discriminatory social system by reinforcing the assumption that individuals with specific characteristics do not fit in society and thus places them in separate situations.- International Disability Alliance 2011 All teachers need Disability Equality Training delivered by trainers with disabilities to challenge negative attitudes and promote social model thinking.
Need a Twin Track approach in Schools and Classrooms Track One Inclusive Teaching and Learning Ethos Equality & Valuing Difference Barriers Identified-Solutions found Child Centred Peer Collaborative Learning Differentiation Flexible Curriculum& Assessment Stimulating learning materials Ensure Anti-Bias Curriculum Reflective and collaborative teachers Quality education requiring rigour and effort by each child to achieve potential Track Two Impairment Specific Adjustments Blind and Visually Impaired Deaf & Hearing Impaired Deaf Blind Speech & Communication Physical Impairment Specific Learning Difficulty Mental Health and Behaviour General Cognitive Impairment Medical Needs Screening, identification and key adjustments for main impairments
India,Dhravi,Mumbai, India 17 Angawadis Pre- School. NGO ADAPT. Workers come from slum and trained. Materials made from what is available e.g.Plastic Bottles, old socks, bottle tops and match boxes. Now SSA across the whole country 2010 All disabled children a right to education.
Zanzibar 20 pilot schools then doubled-4,300 CWD in 86 schools/420 144 teachers trained Braille /Sign Language 2,225 teachers trained in Inclusive Education Provide aids and equipment Worked bottom up utilising existing community networks-ZAPDD Pilot schools parents and facilitator train teachers Set up local training centres Dept or Inclusive Education in Ministry of Ed. Dependent on funding NORAD/NFU Key to have a local facilitator using Community Based Rehabilitation methods. Utilise existing social capital-social networks
Mata Escura, Brazil 2001 everyone a right to education By 2011 Brazil had established 30,000 resource bases in schools to support the learning of disabled children. They have Braille facilities Sign Language and Augmented and Facilitated Communication Learning materials Brazil
ASNIC, Associación Nicaragüense para la Integración Communitaria Nicaragua ASNIC, Managua has been working with a UK development agency, CODA, Community Development and Action International (with funding from the UK Big Lottery), to address the massive educational disadvantage among disabled children in Nicaragua. ASNIC is working on several fronts, for example to draw attention to their situation through the mass media, link Disabled People’s Organisations to the Education Ministry and empower teachers to enhance their skills in meeting this challenge. The main focus of its approach is in raising awareness of the rights of disabled people in local communities, strengthening their capacity for informed advocacy and showing how their inclusion benefits everyone. They have a local advocacy strategy with priorities. Such as a joint campaign secure the admission of disabled children into the public schools. Since its creation in 1996, ASNIC has successfully participated in national and international lobbying that has resulted in the inclusion of rights of PWD in important national, regional and international legal and policy instruments, like the Declaration of Managua and the Declaration of the City of Quebec. ASNIC has managed and implemented important projects for the inclusion of PWDs and their families, like Inclusive Education, and creating strategies for increase a involvement in theirs communities.
Example 3 Instituto Patria, Mexico City Instituto Patria is a physically accessible, private school in the Jesuit tradition, situated in pleasant suburbs of Mexico City. It serves around 200 children in pre-school, primary and now the early years of secondary education. It attracts sufficient income from fees to offer small classes (varying from 6 to 20 pupils) with flexible teaching. Committed to including up to 15% of pupils with special needs, mostly disabled children. The school is bi-lingual (there is teaching in Spanish and English) but its third main theme is inclusion, so nearly a third of its teaching staff also have skills in psychology, speech therapy and other disciplines and increasingly all teachers are acquiring some of these skills in their own classroom practice. Three coordinators of teaching programmes (respectively in Spanish, English and inclusion) work with the Principal and other teachers to shape the curriculum for each pupil and plan its delivery. The inclusion team is available to partner the classroom teachers in their classes when these include children with additional needs and ensure they (and others) get individual support when required. The school invests in fortnightly in- house training both to help teachers explore their philosophy and inclusion. Parents are encouraged to understand the diversity of the school before registering their children and every child has the opportunity to ‘try out’ the school before accepting entry. http://www.centreforwelfarereform.org/uploads/attachment/291/advancing-inclusive-education-for-an-inclusive- society.pdf
Colombia:Municipality of Cali, education system reform Cali is the third largest city in Colombia and is characterised both by many kinds of population diversity and by massive economic inequalities. The Mayor in 2009 was elected on a platform of tackling these inequalities and promoting Cali as an ‘inclusive city’. Established three years ago a municipal office focused on inclusion which in turn has undertaken a wide-ranging study to produce a socio-spatial map of the city measuring different dimensions of exclusion. A key focus of its work has been inclusive education. Equipped with this map targeted, through the Education Department, both the communities and the schools with the largest numbers of vulnerable children in a rolling programme of interventions which will be spread more widely as resources allow. The strategy combines consultation with these communities about the challenges with a package of policies, incentives and supports, including: Free schooling and subsidised uniforms and transport, books and tools for poor students. A significant programme of post-graduate training for selected school Principals and teachers, prioritising those involved in ‘school improvements committees’. A central team supporting schools in preparing and implementing their own transformation plans. Figure 6.2 - Poverty in Cali, Colombia: 1999 headcount rates Poverty 1999
The SCCS has been used and tested, both within and beyond South Africa, as a model of mainstream care and support in education. The following key principles have contributed to the model’s success and replicability: The school supports communities to respond to poverty, HIV & AIDS, conflict and gender-related issues. Meaningful participation by children, youth, the school and its community. Culturally and contextually appropriate approaches. Existing structures and initiatives are built on. A multi-sectoral partnership approach. Social Work, Health and Education. Integrated into government plans and budgets. Schools as Centres of Care and Support (SCCS) KwaZulu Natal After successful pilot in Uglo district. All KZN and 5 other SADC countries now operate. MIET
Friends at College Alberta, Canada Graduation
Inclusive Education -UNESCO Inclusive Education -UNESCO sees inclusive education as a process of addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education. It involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of appropriate age range and a conviction that it is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children. 2006
Inclusion is a process. That is to say, inclusion has to be seen as a never-ending search to find better ways of responding to diversity. Inclusion is concerned with the identification and removal of barriers. Inclusion is about the presence, participation and achievement of all students. Inclusion involves a particular emphasis on those groups of learners who may be at risk of marginalisation, exclusion or underachievement. Mel Ainscow UNESCO ICE 48 Geneva Nov 2008 So Inclusion is not ‘one size fits all’ but a process of community building and bottom up school empowerment. Principles of Inclusive Education
Balance Sheet on Progress to Inclusive education for CWD Positives UNCRPD-Presence of CWD has been encouraged in many countries[147 ratified] Many NGO initiated projects. Only India, Brazil and South Africa attempts to scale up. Know what to do to make IE work- child centred, flexible Know to train all teachers in Twin Track approach Know all schools need to be accessible-DfID and GPE CBR has convinced parents their CWD has a right to education Bottom up change works Wider awareness of finite resources and delicately balanced eco-systems=need to Collaborate Negatives Amount of money has fallen reduction in overall amount and share going to basic education.[since 2009 drop 16%] Shortage of trained teachers[1.6million needed] Much integration, little Inclusion Drop out and non-transition to Secondary far too high Stereotyping and discrimination still rife Governments not developing comprehensive plans and approaches to disability equality Top down change fails GERM-pushing for standardisation, testing and privatisation and narrow curriculum and assessment = Competition
How can finance be mobilised to bring inclusion initiatives to scale? Donors and funders need to get resources down to local level where local people have democratic control on funding. Utilise existing social networks and social capital and fund community groups Ear-mark funding linked to targets of recruitment of pupils with disabilities Retention bonuses for those social groups who drop out and don’t complete basic education-linked to economic benefits of continuing in education Support for training Community Based Rehabilitation workers at local level trained in human rights/social model approach Investment in capacity building ( Disability Equality Training) of local Disabled People’s Organisations and Parents Groups that advocate Inclusive Education Investment in developing and training local advocates of Inclusive Education
Shifting control of budgets to Parents and Governors Funding all headteachers to be trained in Inclusive Education (both tracks) to lead whole-staff training of their school to complete diploma in Inclusive Education Fund mandatory training for all pre-service teachers on twin tracks of inclusion Fund Do It Yourself kits to make all schools accessible, have clean running water, sex separated accessible toilets Solar power so all schools can get on internet using non-copyright software Develop Inclusion resource centres and specialist peripatetic teachers in each district Invest in pay and conditions of teachers and their training levels. Long term and consistent funding and monitoring. How can finance be mobilised to bring inclusion initiatives to scale?-2
Quality Inclusive Education for CWD Needs to be a Post Millennium Development Goal