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R EDEFINING T HE R OLE O F M ULTI- G RADE T EACHING CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "R EDEFINING T HE R OLE O F M ULTI- G RADE T EACHING CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS."— Presentation transcript:

1 R EDEFINING T HE R OLE O F M ULTI- G RADE T EACHING CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

2 THE CHALLENGE AHEAD Achieve EFA & education related MDGs Achieve EFA & education related MDGs –Completion of quality universal primary education –Promote gender equality and empower women

3 The context of basic education in Africa/problems and issues Rural/urban and gender inequalities in terms of access, retention and completion. Rural/urban and gender inequalities in terms of access, retention and completion. Supply side: shortage of teachers to meet enrolments growth. Supply side: shortage of teachers to meet enrolments growth. Emergence of new categories of teachers – under-trained and low-paid contractual teachers. Emergence of new categories of teachers – under-trained and low-paid contractual teachers. Fiscal and budgetary constraints to train and recruit additional teachers. Fiscal and budgetary constraints to train and recruit additional teachers. HIV/AIDS epidemic impact: HIV/AIDS epidemic impact: –Expansion of education systems –Quality education –Costs

4 The context of basic education in Africa/problems and issues Demand side: overcrowded classrooms: high pupils/teacher ratio. Demand side: overcrowded classrooms: high pupils/teacher ratio. Poor teaching and learning conditions in schools. Poor teaching and learning conditions in schools. Specific problems in rural settings: Specific problems in rural settings: –Few teacher incentives to work in rural and disadvantaged areas; –Lack of teacher professional development programmes; –Prevalence of incomplete primary schools in some countries, e.g. Zambia and Mozambique

5 Multi-grade Classes – an inevitable option MGT is not a new idea nor a prescribed approach for developing countries. MGT is not a new idea nor a prescribed approach for developing countries. In Africa, MGT is probably more common than we realise or care to admit. In Africa, MGT is probably more common than we realise or care to admit. Some illustrations Some illustrations Ethiopia Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP III) 2005/ /10 Ethiopia Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP III) 2005/ /10 –… MGT shall be enhanced for improving

6 Multi-grade Classes – an inevitable option access and internal efficiency of the first cycle of primary education for hard-to-reach remote rural communities, sparse settlement areas, pastoralists, semi-agriculturalist societies; –Appropriate training courses and material development shall also be made for teachers; –Teachers shall also be trained in pedagogy and management for MGT…

7 Multi-grade Classes – an inevitable option Zambia, MGT was introduced to: Zambia, MGT was introduced to: –Increase access to education provision to disadvantaged areas; –Increase access to learning in understaffed schools; –Maximise use of available teachers and classroom space.

8 Multi-grade Classes – an inevitable option Tanzania Tanzania –Education and Training Policy (1995) and Primary Education Development Plan put emphasis on quality education and equitable access to primary education.

9 MGT – alternate pedagogic tool to improve quality education MGT programme demonstrates that pedagogy is about what and how teachers teach. MGT programme demonstrates that pedagogy is about what and how teachers teach. –It analyses the core of learning and question the age grade system of formal education delivery. –All teaching and learning is multi-grade teaching.

10 Multi-grade Classes – an inevitable option –Even in a mono-grade class there is always a considerable range of interests, abilities, maturity and needs. –Paradigm shift from teacher to learner- centred is a main feature of MGT. –Multi-grade makes it possible to provide basic education for small and scattered settlements. –Small moving populations such as nomadic people create the need for MGT.

11 Multi-grade Teaching and Rural Education Socio-economic factors in rural and sparsely populated communities have often changed the traditional way of organising schooling. Socio-economic factors in rural and sparsely populated communities have often changed the traditional way of organising schooling. MGT is a workable alternative to traditional modes of teaching – it caters for the needs of teachers and learners in rural areas. MGT is a workable alternative to traditional modes of teaching – it caters for the needs of teachers and learners in rural areas.

12 Policy implications For children to learn effectively in MG environment teachers need to be: For children to learn effectively in MG environment teachers need to be: –well organised –well resourced –well trained and hold positive attitudes on MGT Key challenges to be addressed Key challenges to be addressed

13 Policy implications The Policy Challenge The Policy Challenge –MGT as an important strategy that can improve the quality of teaching and learning. –To mainstream MG courses within existing pre and in-service training programmes. Changing Attitudes Changing Attitudes –To develop positive attitudes among teachers, parents and education officers of the value of MGT

14 Policy implications The Curriculum Change The Curriculum Change –Appropriate teaching learning methodology. –Teachers should be skilled to handle combined grades. Resource Challenge Resource Challenge –To design, reproduce and distribute of self- study materials. –To establish mechanisms for regular supervision, monitoring and support at regional/district and teacher/classroom level.

15 Policy implications –To define minimum standards and benchmarks for pupils learning achievement assessment. –To define minimum standards and benchmarks for physical facilities (classrooms size and set up, equipment, water and sanitation – toilets particularly for girls). –Introduction of ICTs in education – use of Distance Education methods to enhance MGT.

16 Conclusion Investment in the skills of MGT should be seen as contributing to the goal of quality basic education for all. Investment in the skills of MGT should be seen as contributing to the goal of quality basic education for all.


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