In India, according to… the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 and National Trust Act, 1999 the following disabilities are recognized 1.Blindness 2.Low vision 3.Leprosy cured 4.Hearing impairment 5.Locomotor disability 6.Mental illness 7.Mental retardation 8.Multiple Disabilities 9.Autism 10.Cerebral Palsy
Prevalence of Disabilities Global Estimates – based on World Disability Report - 2011 1.About 15% of the population in the world has a disability 2.Between 2 and 4% of the population have severe disabilities In India 1.NSSO - Report on ‘Disabled Persons in India 2002’ estimated 1.8 % (18 million); Male : Female = 59 : 41 2.Census 2001 estimated 2.13% (21 million); Male : Female = 58 : 42 3.Planning Commission, GoI, 11 th 5-Year Plan estimates 5-6% of the population have disabilities
Persons with Disabilities in India Source: Census of India, 2001 Urban - 25%
Percentage distribution of disabled persons by disability Source: NSSO Report on ‘Disabled Persons in India July – December 2002’ Urban areas
Percentage distribution of disabled persons by disability Source: NSSO Report on ‘Disabled Persons in India July – December 2002’ Rural areas
What do you think are the consequences of having a disability?
Consequences of Disability Persons with disabilities frequently experience discrimination and face barriers to participation in all aspects of society – for example, in accessing Education – 59% in Rural and 40% in Urban illiterate; 75% of Severe and 50% with Mild and Moderate Disabilities are Illiterate (NSS 58 th Round - 2002) Employment – 60% of persons with disabilities are out of labour force (NSS 58 th Round - 2002) Health care – 5-10% have access to health and rehabilitation? Transportation - ??? Social Security Decision making platforms +++
Consequences of Disability Some persons with disabilities face multiple barriers to their participation, due to discrimination on the basis of - sex, age, ethnic origin, language, religion, property, class, caste, location As a result, persons with disabilities are at a high risk of poverty
Cycle of Disability and Poverty Denial of opportunities for economic, social and human development Deficits in economic Social and cultural rights Reduced participation in decision making, and denial of civil and political rights Social and cultural exclusion and stigma Disability Poverty Vulnerability to poverty and ill health
What are the different types of barriers encountered by Persons with Disabilities?
Different kinds of barriers encountered by persons with disabilities AttitudesInformationCommunicationPhysicalInstitutional
Understanding Disability Disability Impairments Barriers Physical Mental Intellectual Sensory Attitudes Information Communication Institutional
Who are ‘Persons with Disabilities’? Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others”. (CRPD - Art. 1, In force since May 2008, Ratified by India on 1 st October 2007)
Addressing issues of persons with disabilities is influenced by our beliefs and understanding Segregated Isolated Dependency Low Self Esteem Dignity Non-discrimination Inclusion Equal Opportunity Accessibility Medical Social Human Rights Charity/ Welfare
Education: Where the child is perceived as the problem Child as the problem Does not respond, cannot learn Has special requirements Needs special equipment Cannot go to school Is different from other children Needs special environment Needs special teachers
Education system is the problem Education system as problem Teacher’s attitude Rigid methods and curriculum Inaccessible environment Many repeaters and drop- out Teachers and schools not supported Parents not involved Lack of teaching aids and equipment Poor quality training