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Sundiata, Mansa Musa, Timbuktu

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1 Sundiata, Mansa Musa, Timbuktu
Empire of Mali Sundiata, Mansa Musa, Timbuktu

2 Sundiata & Mansa Musa Sundiata: of Mande ppl. Founder of Mali Empire- - Griots have been telling the Epic of Sundiata for over 900 years (mix of history & legend) - He took RG & political power from local leaders, mansa’s, and took the name with it Mansa Musa: most famous ruler who brought wealth, fame, and power to the kingdom of Ghana - Grandson of one of Sundiata’s sisters (matrilineal tradition)


4 Scene I: 2 pillars Trade: Conquered nearby kingdoms (weakened Ghana, Timbuktu, Gao,Djenne) took over S & G trade, use of Niger Agriculture: Improved and introduced new crops; cotton used for clothing & trade Slaves from conquered areas worked the land, soldiers worked alongside them to clear farm land Sundiata first est. this system and Mansa Musa continued its prosperity

5 Salt slabs on the shores of the Niger river- outskirts of Timbuktu

6 Scene II: Spread of Islam- The Hajj
Mansa Musa 1st devout Muslim ruler in W. Africa Islam spread and several ppl. From Mali made the Hajj to Mecca Est. 60,000-80,000ppl. Accompanied Mansa on his journey to Mecca/Medina in 1324 12,000 servants to king 500 servants to his wife 14,000 slaves wearing silk 500 carrying staffs


8 Celebration of Eid ul-Fitr on the last day of Ramadan
Dogon Country-Mali

9 Scene III: Outside Views of Mali
As recently as 1963, a famous British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper said: "Perhaps in the future, there will be some African history to teach. But at present there is none. There is only the history of Europeans in Africa. The rest is darkness.“ Mansa Musa’s elaborate journey sparked interest in Mali and many ppl. From Asia, Egypt, and other parts of Africa visited=more trade= more wealth for empire By 1375 Mali appeared on a European map of West Africa

10 Map from 1375 shows King Mansa Musa enthroned in the kingdom of Mali.

11 Scene IV: Mosques & Universities
Sent scholars o study in Morocco and set up school in Mali studying the Qur’an Wanted Muslims to read/write in Arabic Arabic as main language in RG study, government, & trade Hired architects from other Muslim countries to build mosques throughout his empire : Timbuktu & Djenne

12 Mosques in Djenne

13 Founded in 300 CE by Bozo ppl.
Market Day in Djenne Founded in 300 CE by Bozo ppl. -Never part of Mali Empire, yet rivaled Timbuktu as a center for Trans-Saharan trade

14 Scene V: African Explorers?
Some historians suggest that West Africans traveled to South/Central America and the Caribbean Islands prior to Columbus.

15 Timbuktu: The Legendary city of Gold…..
Tuareg nomads from Sahara first est. Timbuktu in 11th century. Once conquered by Mali became an important location as a link between N. and W. Africa. Important center for trade: salt, gold, cloth, sugar, kola nuts, glass beads, and shells, slaves, books… Several mosques were built by Mansa Musa & later rulers=center of Islamic learning

16 Mosques in Timbuktu Sankore Mosque- former University & center of learning. Built in 989 C.E. Timbuktu Manuscripts

17 Iron welders

18 Tuareg Nomads First settlers of Mali & still there today….

19 A monument to a war ended in 1994
between the Tuareg nomads and the Muslims within Mali.

20 Without a home….

21 Fall of Empire Weak leadership: Maghan took over after Mansa Musa’s death, could not stop raiders who set fire to Timbuktu’s great schools & mosques Mali grew too large for gov’t to control, parts began to break away and declare independence Invaders: Tuareg nomads seized Timbuktu in 1431 By 1500’s Mali empire was dismantled

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