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OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Dynamic Model of Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism.

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Presentation on theme: "OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Dynamic Model of Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism."— Presentation transcript:

1 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Dynamic Model of Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism

2 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 THE HOSPITALITY SOCIAL LENS

3 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010

4 Lashley et al 2007 Hospitality Social Lens

5 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Thresholds of Hospitality Hospitality is not friendship; it is not even a commercial friendship. Friends have a relationship that ideally is based on the purest of motivations this is often demonstrated with some or all of the following characteristics: the tendency to desire what is best for the other; sympathy; empathy; and mutual understanding.

6 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Thresholds of Hospitality The hospitality relationship is one of stresses and barriers: thresholds that a guest has to cross before they are welcomed. This tension in the guest–host relationship is reflected constantly and exists in the contexts of domestic, civic and commercial hospitality.

7 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 THE DYNAMIC MODEL OF HOSPITALITY

8 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Generic Hospitality Relationship

9 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Domestic Hospitality Relationship

10 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Civic Hospitality Relationship

11 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Commercial Hospitality Relationship

12 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Difference in Perspectives Hospitality literature generally written from the host or providers perspective, with very little from the consumers or guests perspectives The Dynamic Model of Hospitality can be inverted, enabling the hospitality transaction to be viewed from the guests or the consumers perspectives.

13 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE DYNAMIC MODEL OF HOSPITALITY

14 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Determinants of Hospitality The nature of the behaviour - determined by the linkages between types and sites, laws and inclusion/exclusion and domestic discourse and performance. The nature of the relationship - determined by the linkages between types and sites, laws and inclusion/exclusion and commerce, politics of space and social and cultural dimensions The level of intimacy - determined by the linkages between commerce, politics of space and social and cultural dimensions and domestic discourse and performance.

15 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010

16 HOSPITALITY HAS... FIVE DIMENTIONS

17 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010

18 The Importance of Context The provision of hospitality takes place within three specific and different contexts: domestic, civil and commercial. Hospitality has never been homogeneous and its provision has been increasingly codified. It is also affected by the geographic location, the cultural (including religious) customs of the society, and the specific time in history. The modern literature has generally ignored the differing influences on the hospitality event and there is evidence of supporting or criticising hospitality customs based on largely spurious notions of what hospitality could or should be.

19 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Hospitality is a two-way process The guest is linked to the host by the very act of the host providing food, drink and often accommodation to the guest; the level of service provided being initially dependant on the needs of the guest at the time and the capability of the host. However, as time progresses, rank, ontological or otherwise, and status affects the relationship.

20 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Hospitality is a two-way process What is established is the concept of reciprocity for the host and the guest. In any act of hospitality there is always the expectation (explicit or implied) of a benefit that will arise from its provision. Initially this may be simply to be protected from the stranger but also can include monetary, spiritual reward, prestige or benefit exchange.

21 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © that links the host and the guest Reciprocity (temporal or metaphysical) is always an important part of the hospitality transaction. Hospitality is not friendship. Once friendship is established then the relationship changes. The stranger becomes a friend and the potential ultimate goal of hospitality has been achieved. This is only the potential goal as, depending on the context, that goal may never be achieved, and in many cases it may never have been the intention of the hospitality process to reach that goal, for example in commercial hospitality

22 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Commercial Hospitality Two questions: Who is actually the host in a commercial hospitality event? Is commercial hospitality actually hospitality at all?

23 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Guest and Stranger Originally these words were synonyms Hospitality was and is primarily about defence (protection from the stranger) If the relationship between a host and a guest needs to be established to achieve harmony of reciprocity (mutual benefit) then are not the acts of hospitality simply the mechanisms by which this happens?

24 OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Hospitality Management The provision of hospitality as a service is inherently about the management of these behaviours and expectations. And what is wrong with that?


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