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O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Philosophical Perspectives on Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and.

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Presentation on theme: "O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Philosophical Perspectives on Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and."— Presentation transcript:

1 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Philosophical Perspectives on Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism

2 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 INDIVIDUAL MORAL PHILOSOPHY: HOST

3 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Hospitality  ‘a reciprocal right to protection and shelter’ Or  ‘the act of taking somebody into one’s home without any thought of recompense. It brings together an action (a welcome), an attitude (the opening of oneself to the face of another, whether that somebody is poor or a passing traveller, and the opening of one’s door and the offering of the space of one’s house to a stranger), and a principle (disinterestedness).’

4 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 What makes someone a hospitable person ? Personal characteristics e.g. appearance, personality The manner in which hospitality is provided e.g. giving of a ‘gift’ Management of the process of hospitality e.g. service quality Resultant benefits for host and guest e.g. satisfactions

5 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Jacques Derrida “Unconditional hospitality implies that you don’t ask the other, the newcomer, the guest to give anything back, or even to identify himself or herself. Even if the other deprives you of your mastery or your home, you have to accept this. It is terrible to accept this, but that is the condition of unconditional hospitality: that you give up the mastery of your space, your home, your nation. It is unbearable. If, however, there is pure hospitality, it should be pushed to this extreme” (Derrida 1998b:71).

6 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Emmanuel Levinas ‘Face: ‘the way the Other presents himself, something that goes beyond the mere notion of the Other as he exists in me… A face is a living presence… an expression… A face speaks. It manifests itself immediately as a discourse.’

7 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Tahar Ben Jelloun  ‘Receiving somebody as a guest is a passive phenomenon by which you fill yourself with the other person’.

8 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Nature of Hospitality?  ‘I will give him even more than I have.’  ‘My guest is more important than my home’  ‘it imparts an idea of infinity. But it also means learning something.’  ‘Hospitality doesn’t always imply reciprocity.’

9 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 The Test of Hospitality  ‘When another person comes to my house, he teaches me things about myself. His mere presence makes me confront myself. He upsets my space and my habits and teaches me what I am. It’s a kind of test. My accessibility.. ought to be wide and unlimited -.. Real. There should be no mask, no placating. No question of pretending or forcing oneself. Welcome and feigning are incompatible.’

10 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 HOSPITALITY AND THE NATION STATES

11 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Hospitality and the Nation States Hospitality between peoples and states Emigration versus immigration Hospitality and postcolonial theory Fortress Europe

12 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 “We know that there are numerous what we call ‘displaced persons’ who are applying for the right to asylum without being citizens, without being identified as citizens. It is not for speculative or ethical reasons that I am interested in unconditional hospitality, but in order to understand and to transform what is going on today in our world.” (Derrida 1998b:71).

13 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Moroccan Hospitality ‘ a tradition, a part of the Moroccan character, the legacy of a culture… that isn’t to say… total and unqualified… will be hospitable to a stranger, will provide bed and breakfast generously and with pleasure. But he won’t give up his privacy. He may be a good host but he doesn’t really open up.’

14 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Hospitality Paradox ‘Travellers often stay without paying a penny…. Perfectly natural… a pleasure.. A source of pride… part of cultural tradition… act of entertaining a guest… both honours and humanizes the host…. Makes the guest recognise..host as someone capable of sharing… improves my status, as someone capable of existing in relation to others’.

15 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Kant – Guest Obligations  Universal hospitality  ‘A right to visit is not the right to stay.’  This is a conditional hospitality: the foreigner must be on his best behaviour.  If his conduct is disruptive or objectionable he should be deported, unless that puts his life in danger.  Kant also says that the natural relationship between man and man is a state of war

16 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Questions:  How are we to pass from home to the space of a whole nation?  How can the law be made to include the right to hospitality?

17 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 POTENTIAL FOR DISCONTENTMENT AND BIAS

18 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010  Racism is caused by hospitality thresholds and boundaries? “Unconditional hospitality implies that you don’t ask the other, the newcomer, the guest to give anything back, or even to identify himself or herself” (Derrida 1998:71 )

19 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Questions:  To what extent is hospitality at a national level the same as hospitality at an individual level?  What relevance, if any, does hospitality at a national level have to hospitality at an individual level?  Hospitality is what brings people together.  There’s no such thing as fly-by-night hospitality. It’s either immutable or it doesn’t exist.’

20 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Hospitableness  Can ‘commercial hospitality’ be hospitable?  What makes someone a hospitable person?  Differences between hospitality and friendship?

21 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Various Philosophical Perspectives:  Indicate the potential complexities of the phenomenon of hospitality  Demonstrate the potential for misinterpretation of the past, when applied to the present, and the potential for bias  Although influential, a clear and coherent philosophy of hospitality has yet to be proposed.


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