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OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Through the Middle Ages towards the Renaissance The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Towards the end of Classical Antiquity The fall of the Roman Empire was to mark the beginning of the end of Classical Antiquity. It was also to mark the foundation of the Western monastic tradition and the beginning of the Middle Ages that would eventually lead to the period known as the Renaissance.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Hospitality was regarded as a fundamental moral practice Assuring strangers at least a minimum of provision, protection and connection with the larger community. Sustaining the normal network of relationships on which a community depended, enriching moral and social bonds among family, friends and neighbours. Necessary for the wellbeing of mankind and essential to the protection of vulnerable strangers.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The home was the primary location for hospitality Hospitality offered in the home was still often indiscriminate and welcoming to all. Civic and commercial principles already existed and a great deal of the practices of civic and commercial hospitality evolved from that of the home.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Potential for Paradox Hospitality based around the home follows a symbolic transition that takes the visitor from stranger to guest to friend. Hospitality often focus on the relief of homelessness – however, this creates the paradox that without an actual home hospitality is impossible.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 IDENTIFYING THE FIVE DIMENSIONS OF HOSPITALITY
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Honourable Tradition The concepts of guest, stranger, and host are closely related Hospitality is seen as essentially organic, revealing much about the cultural values and beliefs of the societies Reciprocity of hospitality is an established principle Providing hospitality is paying homage to the gods – a worthy and honourable thing to do – and failure is condemned in both the human and spiritual worlds
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Fundamental to human existence Hospitality includes food, drink and accommodation and the approach to be adopted, e.g. welcoming, respectful and genuine Hospitality is offered and the extent or limitation of it is based on the needs and the purpose of the guests/strangers Alliances initially developed through hospitality between friends, households and states, and are strengthened through continuing mutual hospitality Hospitality once granted between individuals, households and states is also granted to descendants and through extended friendships
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Stratified Developments in the societies lead to the formal stratification of hospitality: the codification of hospitality being based on whether it was private, civic or business, and on the needs and purpose of the guest/stranger, and their nature or status Reciprocity of hospitality becomes legally defined Civic and business hospitality develops from private hospitality but retains the key foundations – treat others as if in their own home Hospitality management, in the civic and business sense, is established as being centred on persons responsible for formal hospitality, and also for the protection of the guest/stranger and ensuring their proper conduct.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Diversified Places of hospitality were initially differentiated primarily by the existence, or not, of overnight accommodation Individual places of hospitality either offer associated services, or are located near other places of hospitality Originally places of hospitality are for the lower classes that did not have established networks of hospitality enjoyed by the higher classes Increasing traveling amongst the higher classes created demands for superior levels of places of hospitality
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Central to human endeavour Hospitality is a vital and integral part of the societies Shared hospitality is a principal feature in the development and continuation of friendships and alliances between persons, between communities, and between nations Hospitality is the focus for the celebrations of significant private, civic and business events and achievements throughout life Hospitality is also foreseen as a principal feature until the end of time
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Five Dimensions of Hospitality One way of interpreting the outcomes Clearly evolving since the beginning of human history Inherent in human nature to offer hospitality and the societies, and the contemporaneous religious teachings, all support and reinforce this trait Hospitality has a long history, a honourable tradition, and a rich heritage.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 THE MIDDLE AGES
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Middle Ages The period of European history, from around the 5 th century AD, to the beginnings of the Renaissance in the 15 th century AD And things of that period are known as mediaeval.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Dark Ages? Often considered the Dark Age because of its lack of Christianity Historians often expanded the term to include lack of Latin literature, a lack of contemporary written history and material cultural achievements in general: really it is an age more silent than dark Most modern historians dismiss notion of a Dark Age Pluralism and cultural diversity of Europe existed and the period is now described and known as the early Middle Ages
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Early Middle Ages Relatively uncivilized Only major Western European institution was the Christian Church Religious orders focussing on the standardisation of the liturgical rite, the calendar, and the principles of monastic rule codification of knowledge was being undertaken in the monasteries Great households of Europe (ecclesial or not) responsible for providing hospitality Moves towards European unity and expansion were weakened
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The High Middle Ages Growth of a more settled population Town life, trade and commerce, and society more developed Educational institutions founded and universities established Literacy increased beyond the clergy The Church became the most sophisticated governing institution in Western Europe Monastic orders also grew and flourished
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Late Middle Ages Struggle for supremacy between Church and state Emergence of the secular state in its own right Church found itself challenged and often marginalized Protestant Reformation Establishment of the modern, and secular, nation-state, and the continual expansion of trade and finance would contribute to the transformation of the European economy Religious hospitality, hospitals, poor relief, and responsibility to refugees became separated from their Christian roots as the state increasingly took over more responsibility
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Renaissance From Italy in the 14 th century, the period, which was to become known as the Renaissance (or rebirth), had begun and was to spread to the rest of Western Europe by the 16 th and 17 th centuries The Renaissance was a period of European history that saw a renewed interest in the arts and in the classical past The progress and achievements of the thousand years of the Mediaeval World had certainly established the solid foundations from which the Renaissance was to grow and flourish
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Humanist Movement History became a branch of literature rather than of theology and the critical analysis of the religious texts was to be undertaken with a secular view of history. Whereas the mediaeval scholars had believed that they were living in the final age before the last judgment, and had considered the Greek and Roman Worlds as simply pagan, the Renaissance authors explored the rich history of the ancient and classical worlds, and proclaimed a new age of enlightened Classicism.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 Society transformed The fragmented feudal society of the Middle Ages was transformed into one increasingly dominated by central political institutions, had an urban and commercial economy, and had lay patronage of education, the arts, and music. The monasteries had been the custodians of civilisation during the various periods of unrest during the Middle Ages. The monasteries had also provided the blueprints for hospitality, the care of the sick and the poor, and responsibilities for refugees, which were to be adopted within the nation-states and in secular organisations.
OGorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishing © 2010 The Dynamic Model of Hospitality The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism.
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