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O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Classical Rome The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism.

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Presentation on theme: "O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Classical Rome The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism."— Presentation transcript:

1 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Classical Rome The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism

2 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 DOMESTIC HOSPITALITY: CONSOLIDATION OF POWER

3 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Domestic hospitality  Never exercised in the indiscriminate and the custom of observing the laws of hospitality were common to all the nations of Italy.  An honourable duty to receive distinguished guests into the house.  Hospitality and the culinary arts were very much at the centre of Roman life.  Feasts centred around the gods, some of whom were identified with hospitality, celebration, consumption, and hunting

4 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Domestic hospitality  The tessera hospitalis or ‘hospitality token’ symbolised the bond of personal / familial hospitality  Once established private arrangements of hospitality could not be dissolved except by a formal declaration  Hospitality, lead to long-lasting friendships between the host and the guest; it was from these personal bonds that the public ties of hospitality were later to be formed.

5 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 CIVIC HOSPITALITY: GROWTH OF AN EMPIRE

6 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Civic Hospitality  First direct mention of civic hospitality being established between Rome and another city is after the Gauls had departed from Rome.  Later, instead, towns were raised to the rank of municipia  When a town want a similar relation with Rome, it entered into clientela to some distinguished Roman, who then acted as patron of the client-town.  This hospitality when shared between states was applicable to individuals as well

7 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Civic Hospitality  The custom of granting the honour of hospes publicus to a distinguished foreigner by a decree of the senate seems to have existed until the end of the republic  Public hospitality was, like the hospitium privatum, hereditary in the family of the person to whom it had been granted:

8 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 COMMERCIAL HOSPITALITY: DIVERSIFIED INDUSTRY Case Study: Pompeii

9 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Dedication to a Barmaid Wife

10 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 “…search for him in some big bar. There he will be, lying next a cut-throat, in the company of sailors, thieves, and runaway slaves, beside hangmen and coffin-makers, or beside a passed out priest: This is liberty hall, one cup serves for all, no one has a bed to himself, nor a table apart from the rest.” (Juvenal, Satires 8:168f)

11 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Commercial Hospitality Establishments

12 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Tavern  Level 1 (Shown) 1.Main selling area 2.Serving area 3.Kitchen 4.Stairs  Level 2 (Destroyed) Would have contained the owner’s accommodation

13 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Food Served… Difficult to Replicate (perfect measures/correct conditions) Not much has survived in a contemporary sense Central to Roman Life Food Feasts and Routines underlined social hierarchies and interactions Food was Art Ostrich, Dormouse, Nettles and Eels

14 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Consumption and Fashion Pompeii was a major Resort centre (eating and entertainment) Examination of elements of Hospitality Provision enabling construction of a collective paradigm Consumption acts frozen in time (Evidence at time of eruption) Sophistication of Provision – symbols of lifestyles and Cultural Practice

15 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Bakery

16 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Hotel (VII.xi.11/14) 1 Bedroom 2 Kitchen 3 Atrium 4 Triclinium 5 Store 6 Tablinum Popina (VII.xi.13) 7 Serving Room 7a Store 7b Latrine Other establishments 8 Taberna 9 Grand Lupanar (VII.xii.18-19) Hospitality Cluster

17 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Isometric view of the hotel at Pompeii (courtesy of Wylie Shanks Architects)

18 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 The Grand Lupanar (courtesy of Wylie Shanks Architects)

19 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Typical Stabula 1.Tavern 2.Courtyard 3.Stables 4.Kitchen 5.Bedroom 6.Latrine

20 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 SUMMARY OF HOSPITALITY IN CLASSICAL ROME

21 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Typology of Hospitality  The emergent threefold typology of hospitality became more clearly focused on: Domestic or Private hospitality Civic hospitality Business /Commercial hospitality  Increase in legal governance, more sophisticated approaches to codification of provision and establishment of contractual relationships.  Hospitality professionals emerged as civic and business hospitality developed, with recognised formal and defined responsibilities for hospitality.

22 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Domestic Hospitality  More formal, in the style of a contract, entered into by mutual promise, the clasping of hands and exchange of an agreement in writing or of a token.  The tessera hospitalis gave hereditary character to hospitality and a reciprocal agreement, which could not be dissolved without a formal declaration.  Had the expectations of food, drink, accommodation and entertainment, etc.  Due to the reciprocal nature of private hospitality, not all travellers required the services of a commercial hospitality industry.  Formalised domestic hospitality was more binding and sacred than blood connections.

23 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Civic Hospitality  Used to form strategic alliances between the nation states.  When individuals, or states, had common bond of hospitality; then also mutual recognition of their deities.  Failure to undertake hospitality in an appropriate manner could cause the wrath of the gods on the offending city or household for generations.  The reciprocity of hospitality became legally defined and was used to foster and further develop relationships between the states of the time.  Commercial hospitality did not eclipse domestic and civic hospitality – there were still the associated spiritual and strategic benefits that properly given and received hospitality brought.

24 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Commercial Hospitality  Although linked to its domestic roots, formal eating and feasting often moved to commercial hospitality establishments  Commercial establishments were often homes that had been private houses and the owners often lived in rooms above.  Growth and flourishing of commercial hospitality changed everyday life: restaurants, bars and brothels were also common.  Commercial hospitality industry for travellers, merchants and sailors who came to trade and sell, or those who were stopping overnight along the way to other destinations.  Commercial hospitality establishments were often clustered in specific parts of the cities.

25 O’Gorman, The Origins of Hospitality and Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers © 2010 Further Reading  O’Gorman, K.D. (2007) ‘Commercial Hospitality in Pompeii’. The Hospitality Review Vol 9, No 2 pp  O’Gorman, K.D., Baxter, I. and Scott, B. (2007) ‘Exploring Pompeii: Discovering Hospitality through Research Synergy.’ With Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp journals.com/thr/journal/v7/n2/abs/ a.htmlhttp://www.palgrave- journals.com/thr/journal/v7/n2/abs/ a.html


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