Presentation on theme: "ADHDADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder) with or without hyperactivity."— Presentation transcript:
ADHDADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder) with or without hyperactivity
ADHD Attention Deficit Disorder is a medical diagnosis used by the American Psychiatric Association since the early 1980s to describe a syndrome of emotional and behavioural difficulties exhibiting core features of extreme levels of impulsivity, inattentiveness and motor activity. It is estimated that between 1 and 2% of young people may suffer from ADHD (source ADHD society), more common in boys, they are also more likely to be hyperactive.
ADHD Attention –Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common condition affecting several percent of young people. It is more common in boys but girls may currently be under-diagnosed. There are three subtypes : ADHD :- mainly inattentive. ADHD :- mainly hyperactive – impulsive ADHD :- combined The first of these is sometimes referred to as ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). When ADHD is combined with motor-perceptual problems (also referred to as Developmental Coordination Disorder or Dyspraxia) some clinicians refer to DAMP (Deficits in attention, motor control and perception). When problems are very severe and all the diagnostic features listed are present the criteria for Hyperkinetic Disorder may be met. Thus ADD, DAMP, Hyperkinetic Disorder are all subtypes of ADHD.
Diagnostic Features Inattentiveness :- Very short attention span, over- frequent changes of activity, extreme distractibility. Overactivity :- Excessive movements, especially in situations expecting calm such as classroom or at mealtimes. Impulsiveness :- Affected person will not wait their turn, very often act without thinking, thoughtless rule-breaking.
Possible Causes of ADHD Studies indicate a very strong genetic contribution. Environmental causes include brain damage, intolerance to certain foods. Hearing Impairment. Toxic abuse (Including maternal Alcoholism and Heavy smoking and infective agents during pregnancy). Psychological Stress and Social Problems assist in creating further behavioural and emotional difficulties. Inheritance Patterns, DNA studies have indicated variants of some (including dopamine) genes to be more common in groups of young people with ADHD. The significance in individual cases is not yet known.
Teaching Tips For Teachers Consistency is the key to helping people with ADHD. They are really poor at dealing with change, even if it is a positive change. They need to have a sense of external structure, as they tend to lack a sense of internal structure. ADHD sufferers have two kinds of time Plenty and None. They are usually poor at organising their time and need you to help them break tasks down into small components. Placing students with ADHD at the front of the class, nearest the white board or where you are giving the instructions is often helpful. If the student is right handed, placing them at the right front of the class minimises the number of other students they can watch or distract during the lesson. Try to provide quiet study areas, free from distraction, especially when written work is required.
Teaching Tips For Teachers ctd Work within the candidates attention span, regular changes in activities will assist the teaching of this type of student. Remember, these young people have a tendency to get people around them fighting or arguing, avoid a blame culture, try to be one step ahead of this student and plan for the inevitable Many of these students are visual learners. Try to make things more visual or tactile and they may grasp them better. Instead of memorising words, ask them to make a movie in their head and play it back. If you feel frustrated dont worry, so do their parents and so do the students themselves, do not take the problems you encounter as personally directed because in most cases it isnt.
Teachers Should Have Positive Expectations for all students including those with ADHD. Monitor progress regularly and provide as much positive feedback as possible. Give clear directions and repeat them frequently and where possible visually. Be consistent, firm, fair and patient. Make sure you set realistic boundaries. Make lots of eye contact. Break down each task into smaller component parts. Only set achievable Aims for the individual.