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Learners with Learning Disabilities ED226 Fall 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Learners with Learning Disabilities ED226 Fall 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learners with Learning Disabilities ED226 Fall 2010

2 Historic Development of the Concept of LD Medical Phase – Focus was on brain damage

3 Historic Development of the Concept of LD Learning Disability Phase – Attempt to develop accurate name (educational handicaps, language disorders, perceptual handicaps, clumsy child syndrome, hyperkinetic syndrome. – The urge to move from a medical understanding to one of teaching and learning – The term LD comes to be in 1963

4 Historic Development of the Concept of LD IDEA Phase – Attention turned to the use of direct instruction – Focused on cognitive approaches

5 IDEA definition A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which manifests itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do calculations. May include: perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and development aphasia. May not include problems in vision, hearing or motor disabilities, MR, ED or environmental cultural or economic issues

6 5 core issues Disorder of basic psychological functioning Language component Imperfect ability Inclusionary clause Exclusionary clause

7 Assessment and Identification Issues Discrepancy Model Problems with Discrepancy Criteria – Promotes wait to fail – Increase student frustration – misclassification

8 Assessment and Identification Issues IDEA 2004 and Changes in Identification – We see language that suggests a school district is not longer required to use the discrepancy model

9 Assessment and Identification Issues RtI as an identification model – Phase 1: determine average rate of growth in the classroom, if low whole class intervention – Phase 2: if acceptable, identify children with dual discrepancy (low achievement and low learning) – Phase 3: Identify interventions that may address the needs of these learners, implement, track, and determine – Phase 4: if persistent evaluate for sped

10 RtI benefits Recognizes that the student has had the opportunity to learn, but has not benefited Avoids waiting to fail issues Strong focus on learning outcomes, growth, and progress monitoring to benefit all learners Reduce bias related to teacher referrals May improve the general education environment

11 Rti Potential Problems May suggest LD is a instructional issue When is a determination made? More research is needed What are intensive interventions? Personnel preparation

12 Alternative Definitions of LD National Joint Committee on LD Interagency Committee on LD

13 Alternative Definitions of LD Issues Raised by the Alternative Definitions, themes: – Central Nervous System issues are presumed to be a cause – Underachievement is a primary indicator – Effect of LD across the life span – Problems in language, academic learning, thinking, and reasoning – Possible of coexistence with other conditions

14 Conditions Associated with LD Factors – Extrinsic to the individual (environmental) – Within the person (intrinsic)

15 Conditions Associated with LD Intrinsic – Genetic differences – Brain injury – Biochemical imbalances – Unspecified Brain Differences

16 Conditions Associated with LD Extrinsic – Environmental toxins – Food and environmental allergies – Abuse, neglect, lack of stimulation

17 Prevalence of LD Two factors: – The actual number of individuals with LD – Method used to operationalize the definition and to classify learners – Range from 1 to 30%

18 Prevalence of LD Identification as a historical Issue – Awareness of the concept in 1975 led to identification – Improved screening procedures – Less stigma than other classifications – Identification to access services – Cultural bias – $$$

19 Characteristics of LD Developmental learning disabilities, functional issues – Attention, perception, memory, thinking, oral language Academic learning disabilities – Failure to develop age appropriate skills in reading, written expression, spelling, handwriting and math Social Skills

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