2Definition of ADHDAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder describes children who display persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities.(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000)
3DSM-IV Criteria for Diagnosis Six or more inattention symptoms or six or more hyperactivity-impulsivity symptomsSymptoms must be inconsistent with the child’s current developmental levelMust persist to a degree that is considered maladaptive for at least six monthsAdditional DSM CriteriaSome symptoms present before age 7Impairment from symptoms must be present in at least two types of settingsClinically significant impairment in school, social or occupational functioningSymptoms do not occur solely during a pervasive developmental disorder or psychotic disorderSymptoms are not accounted for better by another mental disorder
4InattentionOften does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.2.Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities.
53.Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. 4.Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace Often has trouble organizing activities.
65.Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time6.Often loses things needed for tasks and activities
77.Is often easily distracted 8.Is often forgetful in daily activities.
8Hyperactivity Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. 2.Often gets up from seat when remaining in seat is expected.
94.Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly. 3.Often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate
105.Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor". 6.Often talks excessively.
11Impulsivity1.Often blurts out answers before questions have been finished.2.Often has trouble waiting one's turn.3.Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).
12Subtypes Predominantly Inattentive Type children who only meet the criteria for inattentionPredominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Typechildren who only meet the criteria for hyperactivity-impulsivityCombined Typechildren who meet the criteria for both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity
13FactsIn every classroom of 30 students, up to 3 children may have ADHDADHD children tend to show emotional development that is 30% slower than children without the disorderUp to 65% of children with ADHD show problems with defiance, non-compliance, problems with authority figures, show verbal hostility, and have temper tantrums40% of children with ADHD have at least one parent with the disorder
14Facts 50% of children with ADHD display sleeping problems as well Parents of ADHD children are 3 times more likely to divorce than parents of non-ADHD childrenTeenagers with ADHD on average have 4 times as many traffic tickets as non-ADHD teenagers75% of boys display the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, while only 60% of girls are hyperactive
15Positive Effects of ADHD Often positive qualities are overlookedA high level of energyOriented towards an active lifestyleOutgoing and personableCreative thinkers, tend to ‘think outside the box’Many of these qualities prepare ADHD students for successful professional lives
16Teaching Students with ADHD The Process of Ongoing Learning and DevelopingIt is crucial for teachers, parents, and students to be fully aware of the child’s disorders and the effective management strategies availableEnhance home-school communicationsImplementation of I.E.P.s and Behaviour Plans
17Developing Positive Attitudes in Students with ADHD Don’t Let Your Students Get Burnt Out!Students with ADHD will often face self-esteem issues as they cannot control their behaviour and have trouble completing tasks. So it is important to help these children gain confidence in themselves by providing ways to show their accomplishments and abilitiesSport Teams/Activity GroupsReading BuddiesVolunteering in the school/communityDisplay completed work and artwork