Definition of ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder describes children who display persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities. (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000)
DSM-IV Criteria for Diagnosis Six or more inattention symptoms or six or more hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms Symptoms must be inconsistent with the child’s current developmental level Must persist to a degree that is considered maladaptive for at least six months Additional DSM Criteria Some symptoms present before age 7 Impairment from symptoms must be present in at least two types of settings Clinically significant impairment in school, social or occupational functioning Symptoms do not occur solely during a pervasive developmental disorder or psychotic disorder Symptoms are not accounted for better by another mental disorder
Inattention 1.Often does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities. 2. Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities.
3.Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. 4.Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace Often has trouble organizing activities.
5.Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time 6.Often loses things needed for tasks and activities
7.Is often easily distracted 8.Is often forgetful in daily activities.
Hyperactivity 1.Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. 2.Often gets up from seat when remaining in seat is expected.
3.Often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate 4.Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly.
5.Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor". 6.Often talks excessively.
Impulsivity 1.Often blurts out answers before questions have been finished. 2.Often has trouble waiting one's turn. 3.Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).
Subtypes Predominantly Inattentive Type children who only meet the criteria for inattention Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type children who only meet the criteria for hyperactivity-impulsivity Combined Type children who meet the criteria for both inattention and hyperactivity- impulsivity
Facts In every classroom of 30 students, up to 3 children may have ADHD ADHD children tend to show emotional development that is 30% slower than children without the disorder Up to 65% of children with ADHD show problems with defiance, non- compliance, problems with authority figures, show verbal hostility, and have temper tantrums 40% of children with ADHD have at least one parent with the disorder
50% of children with ADHD display sleeping problems as well Parents of ADHD children are 3 times more likely to divorce than parents of non-ADHD children Teenagers with ADHD on average have 4 times as many traffic tickets as non-ADHD teenagers 75% of boys display the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, while only 60% of girls are hyperactive Facts
Often positive qualities are overlooked A high level of energy Oriented towards an active lifestyle Outgoing and personable Creative thinkers, tend to ‘think outside the box’ Many of these qualities prepare ADHD students for successful professional lives Positive Effects of ADHD
Teaching Students with ADHD The Process of Ongoing Learning and Developing It is crucial for teachers, parents, and students to be fully aware of the child’s disorders and the effective management strategies available Enhance home-school communications Implementation of I.E.P.s and Behaviour Plans
Developing Positive Attitudes in Students with ADHD Don’t Let Your Students Get Burnt Out! Students with ADHD will often face self-esteem issues as they cannot control their behaviour and have trouble completing tasks. So it is important to help these children gain confidence in themselves by providing ways to show their accomplishments and abilities Sport Teams/Activity Groups Reading Buddies Volunteering in the school/community Display completed work and artwork