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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  First description by Dr. George Still  1920s – Children who survived encephalitis lethargica often were distractible and impulsive  1930s – Dr. Charles Bradley used stimulant medication to control children’s behavior  1960s – term hyperactive was used  Today – research on the brain’s role in ADHD

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder A pervasive pattern of inattention, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity- impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. (American Psychological Association, 2000)

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Predominately inattentive  Predominately hyperactive/impulsive  Combined

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder 3-5% of the population 2-3 times as many boys identified as girls No difference in frequency among races Caucasian children more likely to receive medication for ADHD

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Physiological causes  Heredity  Brain differences  Environmental Causes  Lead poisoning  Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Problems with Executive Functioning  Working memory is not efficient  Self-directed speech not utilized effectively  Difficulty controlling emotions or motivation  Reconstitution – the ability to break down what is observed and to combine parts to carry out new actions

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Some students are very successful academically  Other students consistently achieve below their potential  Academic self-concept is important

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Self-esteem is a problem for some, but not all, students with ADHD  Students often have problems coping with social functioning  Developing and maintaining friendships  Rejection by peers

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Failure to attend to details  Make careless mistakes in work  Failure to complete schoolwork  Failure to listen when spoken to directly  Difficulty organizing tasks and materials  Avoidance of tasks that require sustained mental effort

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  ADHD may occur simultaneously with other disorders such as:  Learning disabilities  Tourette’s syndrome  Emotional disabilities  Autism  Traumatic brain injury  Psychiatric disorders  Sleep disorders  Substance abuse problems

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Medical Diagnosis  Pediatrician, family physician, psychiatrist  Diagnosis may occur before child enters school  Educational referrals may come from  Child’s classroom teacher  Special education teacher

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Medical assessment  Continuous performance tests  DISC IV (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children)  Parent rating scales and checklists – BASC, CBCL  Teacher rating scales and checklists  Samples of student’s work  Anecdotal information

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Inability to regulate behavior Question rules and create their own Problems with Rules Primary characteristic of ADHD Good judgment lags behind intellectual development Impulsivity Difficulty in most situations Only in specific situations, e.g., when bored Poor sustained attention ADHDGifted StudentsBehavior

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Does the ADHD “adversely affect” the student’s educational performance?  Not all students with ADHD are eligible  Students who are not eligible for IDEA may qualify for accommodations under Section 504  Students may be eligible because they also have a learning or emotional disability

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Diagnosis at an early age is difficult.  If children’s symptoms of ADHD are severe, early intervention is crucial.  Children may need a highly structured environment, immediate and consistent feedback, and age-appropriate rewards.

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Many students receive their education in general education classrooms.  Professionals must collaborate with parents to find effective techniques for students with ADHD.

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  66% of students with ADHD continue to have the disorder into adulthood  Many adults with ADHD are disorganized, impulsive, and have poor work skills  Students need to have a clear understanding of their disorder and learn to advocate for themselves

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  The use of medication is controversial.  The decision to prescribe medication only indirectly involves school personnel.  Medication is helpful for many (70-80%) students for whom it is prescribed.  Medication alone is not sufficient to improve academic performance

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Ritalin  Concerta  Focalin  Adderall  Strattera

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  Parent and professional education  Environmental supports for students  Behavior interventions  Rewards  Token economy systems  Structure  Quick Pace

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Provide: Structure Quick pace Variety

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 6: Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Have realistic expectations of parents Encourage parents to be good role models Help parents have realistic expectations Make related resources available


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