Presentation on theme: "Understanding Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
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IDEA Category ADHD is a subcategory under Other Health Impaired –Has limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment that Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Adversely affects a child’s educational performance
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Prevalence One of the most frequent reasons children are referred to guidance clinics 3-7% of the school- age children suffer from ADHD –In a class of students at least 1 student will have ADHD Occurs more frequently in boys than girls; boys are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed –Boys exhibit noticeable hyperactive and impulsive behaviors –Girls exhibit inattentive behavior
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Definition –Two types Inattention Hyperactivity-Impulsivity DSM-IV Classification –ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type –ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type –ADHD, Combined Type
Inattention Refers To: Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: –Failing to pay close attention to details and making careless mistakes that are inconsistent with child’s developmental level –Failing to sustain attention to tasks and/or play activities
Inattention Refers To (continued) –Failing to listen, even when spoken to directly –Failing to complete tasks –Having difficulty with organization –Resisting to work on tasks that require sustained attention –Losing materials and objects –Becoming easily distracted –Being forgetful
Hyperactivity Refers To Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: –Hyperactivity Fidgeting or squirming Having a difficult time remaining and seated in class Running or climbing excessively when it’s not appropriate Having difficulty playing quietly Acting a though he/she is “driven by a motor” Talking too much
Impulsivity Refers To Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: –Blurting out answers –Difficulty waiting for their turn –Interrupting others or butting into activities Onset of inattention and/or hyperactivity should be present before age 7 and in two or more separate settings.
Characteristics of ADHD Poor sustained attention or vigilance Impulsive or poor delay of gratification Hyperactivity or poorly regulated activity Diminished rule-governed behavior Increased variability of task performance
Is ADHD Caused by… A lack of will or self-control Parents who don’t discipline their children Watching too much TV or playing video games Dietary issues such as too much sugar Living in a fast-paced, stressful culture
Some Known Causes Heredity –Greater than 50% likelihood if have a parent with ADHD –5 to 7 times greater chance if sibling has ADHD Structures of the brain –Frontal lobe, cerebellum and basal ganglia Biological cause –Prenatal (exposure to cigarette smoke, lead, alcohol) –Perinatal (complications at delivery) –Postnatal (brain infections)
Affected Brain There are 3 areas of the brain that have consistent abnormalities in people with ADHD –Prefrontal Lobes –Frontal Lobes –Basal Ganglia Each of these areas are smaller in children and adults, abnormality shows more in the right side of the brain than other parts.
Prefrontal Lobes, Frontal Lobes, Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum and Corpus Callosum Prefrontal, Frontal Lobes –Regulates behavior Basal Ganglia –Involves control of motor behavior and coordination Cerebellum –Also responsible for coordination and motor behavior control Corpus Callosum –Connects left and right hemispheres of the brain, necessary for communication between them.
Hereditary Factors Family Studies –If a parent has ADHD there is a 57% chance their child will have ADHD –If a child has ADHD there is a 32% chance their sibling will also have ADHD Twin Studies –If and identical twin and a fraternal twin have ADHD, the second identical twin is more likely to have ADHD than the second fraternal twin Molecular Genetic Studies –There is no specific gene that causes ADHD, it is a combination of several genes.
Toxins & Medical Factors Fetal alcohol and tobacco use by a mother puts the child at a higher risk of ADHD due to toxins Birth complications and low birthweight are also associated with ADHD –Low birthweight is caused by smoking
Coexisting Conditions ADHD often occurs simultaneously with other behavioral and/or learning problems 25% to 50% of people with ADHD also exhibit some form of emotional or behavioral disorder In addition, persons with ADHD run a higher risk than the general population for substance abuse Adolescents with ADHD are more likely to experiment prematurely with alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs. Not exactly known why this is.
Medication as Treatment Stimulant medication Ritalin Dexadrine Adderall Cylert Concerta Medication is only one aspect of a treatment plan
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Educational Interventions Use novelty in instruction and directions Maintain a schedule Prepare students for transitions and provide support in completing transitions Emphasize time limits
Educational Interventions Provide organizational assistance Provide rewards consistently and often Be brief and clear Arrange the environment to facilitate attention Provide optimal stimulation Allow for movement and postures other than sitting
Educational Interventions Keep homework assignments separate from unfinished school work Use homework as practice for materials that have already been taught Identify the minimum amount to demonstrate learning Provide timelines for tasks associates with long-term assignments