Presentation on theme: "The Impact of Preparing Educators to Incorporate Technology 2005 PBS Ready To Learn Summer Institute! Technology Use in Preschool Education August 9-10,"— Presentation transcript:
The Impact of Preparing Educators to Incorporate Technology 2005 PBS Ready To Learn Summer Institute! Technology Use in Preschool Education August 9-10, 2005 Crystal Gateway Marriott, Arlington, Virginia Lynn Hartle, Ph.D. Preparing educators to incorporate technology in the preschool classroom, in order to capitalize on the benefits of technology.
Who Are Preschool Teachers? According to the National State-Funded Pre-Kindergarten Study: Seven out of ten (7 out of 10) teachers in state-funded pre-kindergarten programs earn salaries in the low-income category and one in six (1 in 6) works a second job to make ends meet Twenty-seven percent (27%) of the teachers lacked a bachelors degree. The Western U.S. had fewer bachelor degrees per classroom than any other part of the country. Nationally, 13 % of teachers reported having no more than a high school diploma or GED; 14 %, an associates degree; 49 % a bachelors degree and 24 % a masters degree or higher. Twenty- two percent (22%) held a Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. In West Virginia, Maryland, New York, and South Carolina, the majority of teachers held masters degrees. In Alaska and Florida, the majority of teachers had no more than a high school diploma or GED as their highest educational degree. Gilliam, W.S. & Marchesseault, C.M. (March, 2005). From Capitols to Classrooms, Policies to Practice: State-Funded PreKindergarten at the Classroom Level. Part 1: Who’s Teaching our Youngest Students?: Teacher Education and Training, Experience, Compensation and Benefits, and Assistant Teachers. (funded by NIEER, Pew Charitable Trusts, and Foundation for Child Development)
Policies and Trends that Impact Preschool Teachers 2000, New Teachers for a New Century: The future of Early Childhood Professional Preparation 2001, National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) 1,200 offered early childhood teacher preparation programs, yet most offered either Associates or less than Associate degrees. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 The 2001 report from the National Research Council, Eager to Learn: Educating our Preschoolers Preventing Reading Failure (Snow, 1998).. Federal Head Start mandates Early Childhood Education: A Call to Action from the Business Community (2003)
Selected Policies and Trends that Impact Technology for Preschool Teachers NAEYC position statement: Technology and young children - ages three through eight (1996) THE Consortium (1999).http://www.thecol.org/http://www.thecol.org/ The Digital Divide Network (1999) CyberStart (2000) Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers (2001) online at nap.edu IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion (2002) hosted by KnowledgeWorks Foundation (http://www.kwfdn.org) and the Education Commission of the States (ECS) (http://www.ecs.orghttp://www.kwfdn.orghttp://www.ecs.org Beyond the Journal of Young Children November 2003November 2003: Using Technology as a Teaching and Learning Tool. May 2004May 2004: E-learning for Educators. Technology and Young Children Interest Forum of the NAEYC NETS National Ed. Tech Stand. With ISTE
Adult Learning & Preschool Teachers Marcia L. Conner Learning can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills. In contrast, memory can define the capacity of storing, retrieving, and acting on that knowledge. Learning helps us move from novices to experts and allows us to gain new knowledge and abilities. Learning strengthens the brain by building new pathways and increasing connections that we can rely on when we want to learn more. Definitions that are more complex add words such as comprehension and mastery through experience or study. Children learn by building new assemblies and sequences of brain pathways and connections. Adults spend more time making new arrangements than forming new sequences. Learning requires energy; re-learning and un-learning requires even more. We must access higher brain functions to generate the much-needed energy and unbind the old. Our experience, background, and learning styles allow us to learn new concepts. Also, preschool teachers may enter the field with little training and lots of hands-on practice; while elementary and secondary teachers first learned about theories of learning and teaching and then integrated theory with field experiences in classrooms; therefore their needs for professional development formats, timing, and frequency will differ. (Ackerman, 2004).
Which software might would be more motivating for this teacher? ACTIVE X REFLECTIVE SENSING X INTUITIVE VISUAL X VERBAL SEQUENTIAL X GLOBAL Ms.Preschool Teacher
What do Preschool Teachers Currently Do with Technology at Home? IF they have a computer at home, they: Surf the web to shop Create resumes Play games And do what many of us do online and off line.... But only IF teachers have a computer at home Having a computer at home makes a difference as this allows teachers to practice individually and try out new techniques.
What Do Preschool Teachers Want to Do with Technology --for Teaching with Young Children -Make instructional materials (labels, games, pictures, stories) -Create newsletters to send home with families -Keep records about classroom activities (lesson plans, floor plans, learning centers) -Assess and document children’s learning -Communicate with families or other professionals via -Locate internet resources for lesson planning or ideas for best practices -Create or add information to a classroom website -Develop and print photographs from digital cameras -Select and use appropriate software as part of an integrated activity/lesson plan -Create multi-media projects -Create video clips of children’s play and work
What Are Some Apprehensions Preschool Teachers Have We all have some apprehensions or concerns about using technology in curriculums with young children. What are yours? (Circle your FOUR top apprehensions/concerns.) fear of the unknown and a desire to maintain the status quo (the way things are now), apprehensions about breaking or misusing expensive equipment, time constraints involving learning new skills needed to implement the technology in the classroom and restructuring the curriculum to include technology as a learning center, perceptions of myself as incapable or "stupid" about computers, previous unsuccessful experiences with technology, children will know more than me about using computers, there are dangers with children using the internet (ie. those who find children through the internet and capture or abuse), computers don’t foster positive social interaction that young children need, children may use computers too much and not have enough time with other classroom materials especially hands-on materials, lack of support from other teachers, belief that learning about technology is a waste of time because the school would not have funds to purchase the equipment or enough software, don’t believe in the benefits technology has to offer young children –Adapted from Theuvenelle & Bewick (2003)
What Do Preschool Teachers Need to Be Successful with Technology To be personally comfortable with technology (McCarty, 2000) Have a computer readily available to use and try out new skills, preferably at home Time to share ideas with other teachers, experiment with high quality software To feel that the tasks are worth it because they make life more efficient or support learning information THEY want to know more about.(Magee & Jones, 2004) To know the basic operation of the computer, including alternative ways of doing things (the back door) if something goes wrong.(Magee & Jones, 2004) Feel supported by administrators or supervisors (Espinosa & Chen, 2001; Bewick & Kostelnick, 2004) To have a curriculum and program philosophy that supports technology integration. (Davis & Shade, 1994) Teacher Technology Assessment Teacher Technology Assessment Bewick & Kostelnick (2004)
How Can Preschool Teachers Get The Technology Professional Development Needed? Basic Principles: #1 Ongoing, Ongoing, Ongoing….. Grounded in the learning material and curriculum with targeted assistance Time for practicing and working out sample problems Tech support available in person, phone, on-line Teachers can work in teams to support each other (learning communities) Modeling of all kinds – visual, video, verbal, demonstrations Avenues for reflection Learning through Story and Play!!! Learning through Story and Play!!! i.d.e.a.s. and Atusi Hirumi (2005) Links to Online Resources on Technology as a Learning Tool Making a good choice about the types of medium for technology- based Professional Development (Harvey, 2004)
What New Roles will Preschool Teachers Have With Technology Infused Curriculum? It is not IF computers should be used with young children, but HOW (Papert, 1980) The teacher is the key and pivotal person to the successful use of technology in early childhood classrooms (Bowman, 1998; Chang, 2001; Sarama & Clements, 2001; Thouvenelle & Berwick, 2003) Instructional Support -as a Modeling Vehicle -as tool to monitor and assess children’s progress -as a link to families and the community -a tool to find or create new lessons Instruction with Children -select and support the use of appropriate software -to support a teachable moment and foster rich language development -design computer centers that foster social interactions and rich play and work -learning fosters constructivist teaching and learning - see Australia
Technology – as a Modeling Vehicle Professional Development and Ongoing Reflection can be supported with a well developed website: Environments as Context Classroom Examples Managing - Is there a place for….? Creating environments Panoramas of Classrooms with various curriculum models Observing and Evaluating Classrooms » Wetsel, J.C. (2002). –http://ed.oc.edu/earlychildhood/http://ed.oc.edu/earlychildhood/
Technology – as tool to monitor and assess children’s progress EasyTech as modeled at this Elementary school ch.htm Teaching Strategies - CreativeCurriculum.net o.cfm o.cfm
Technology - as a link to families and the community Virtual PreK KidSpace (1995) Early Learning Coalition of Orange County Florida Digital Learning Exchange and the National Board for Teaching Standards Scholastic – Web spaces for teachers
Technology - to find or create new lessons Edutopia, a book developed through the George Lucas Foundation includes a wealth of links for teachers to use as they build virtual and real projects with children.George Lucas Foundation Preschool Literacy Website Apple Learning Exchange DMOZ dhood/ dhood/
Technology - select and support the use of appropriate software Choose appropriate Software according to sound principles (Haugland, 1997)Haugland, 1997 Consider the children’s reading level Software should be open-ended and allow the children to create, this is especially important for children of low-income and minority families who have less access at home (Bowman, 1998; Clements & Sarama, 2001) Monitor the children’s software use often to learn about each child’s unique learning style and emerging learning (Chang, 2001)
Technology - to support a teachable moment and foster rich language development The Kids Got Taken by Aliens an original screenplay by Jahad and Taurus Rated 5 for 5 year olds Damian, B. (2005) Rated 5 for five year olds, Young children,60(2), See also: Kelly; K.L. & Schorger, J.R. (2001).
Technology – centers to foster social interactions and rich play and work The area should support two or more children to support language turn-taking, extending of each other’s ideas, and augment learning beyond 2D materials (Freeman & Somerindyke, 2001; Sarama & Clements, 2001) Less than 10:1 children to computers fosters social behaviors (Yost, 1998) Place computers next to each other with two seats in front with another at the side for the teacher to join in or provide support
Technology – learning fosters constructivist teaching and learning Create real-world environments and real-world problems Instructors are guides and there are built in controls for learners as well as opportunities for the learner to modify the learning Provide experiences, examples, and experts Provide the materials and other tools that help learners interpret multiple perspectives and sources of information Teachers work with children to design and carry out goals for learning There are assessments and evaluations in which children can self-evaluate as well as have adults guide and assess. Jonassen (1991); Jonassen, Howland, Moore, Marra (2003)
Technology – requires ongoing questioning and scaffolding “mental bridges” (Huttinger & Johanson, 2000; Jonassen, Howland, Moore, Marra (2003) Scaffolding by providing open- end tasks with systematic timing of brain-storming sessions, questioning by the teacher, supports for planning processes, and providing examples or models is critical to children’s success on tasks and enhances these skills (Yelland, 1998). A balance of teacher guidance and self-directed exploration is needed. Teachers need to redirect, provide choices, and model strategies just like they would other materials
What is in Store for Young Children and Preschool Teachers? Kalinowski, M.F. (2001) The Current Status of Technology in Education: Lightspeed Ahead with Mild Turbulence. (Statistical Data Included) Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual.
References: Ackerman, D.J. (2004) Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4) Anderson, G.T., Hilton, S.C., & Wouden-Miller, M. (2003). A gender comparison. of the cooperation of 4-year-old children in classroom activity centers. Early Education & Development, 14(4), Blagojevic, B Funding technology: Does it make cents? Young Children 58 (6): Bowman, B. (1998) Equity and Young Children as Learners Proceedings of the Families, Technology, and Education Conference Bowman, B., Donovan, S. M. & Burns, S. (Eds.) (2001). Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Research Council. Bredekamp, S. & Rosegrant, T. (Ed.) (1992). Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Chang, N. (2001). It is developmentally inappropriate to have children work alone at the computer? Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual. Chen, M. & Armstrong, S. (2002). Edutopia: Success stories for learning in the digital age. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Clements, D.H., & J. Sarama Young children and technology: What does the research say? Young Children 58 (6): Damian, B. (2005) Rated 5 for five year olds, Young children,60(2), Davis, B.C. &Shade, D.D. (1994). Integrate, Don't Isolate! Computers in the Early Childhood Curriculum Donohue, C., & R. Neugebauer Innovations in e-learning: New promise for professional development. Young Children 59 (3):
References (Cont.) Freeman; N.K. & Somerindyke, J. (2001). Social Play at the Computer: Preschoolers Scaffold and Support Peers' Computer Competence. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual. Harvey, C.E Technology-based professional development: A meaningful alternative. Young Children 59 (3): Haugland, S.W. (1999). What role should technology play in young children's learning. Young Children, 54(6), Haugland, S.W. (2000). Early childhood classrooms in the 21st century: Using computers to maximize learning. Young Children, 55(1), Hohmann, C Staff development practices for integrating technology in early childhood education programs. In Young children:Active learners in a technological age, eds. J.L. Wright & D. Shade.Washington, DC: NAEYC. Huttinger, P.L. & Johanson, J.(2000). Implementing and maintaining an effective early childhood comprehensive technology system. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(3), Jonassen, D.H. (1991). Evaluating constructivist learning. Educational Technology, 31 (9), Jonassen, D.H., Howland, J., Moore, J., Marra, R.M. (2003) Learning to solve problems with technology: A constructivist perspective, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. Kalinowski, M.F. (2001) The Current Status of Technology in Education: Lightspeed Ahead with Mild Turbulence. (Statistical Data Included) Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual. Kelly; K.L. & Schorger, J.R. (2001). "Let's Play 'Puters": Expressive Language Use at the Computer Center. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual. Magee, J., & E. Jones Leave no grown-up behind: Coming to terms with technology. Young Children 59 (3): McCarty, W Computers and children. Humanist Discussion Group. Vol 14, No London: Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King’s College. Online:
References (Cont.) MOBIUS Corporation Computers in Head Start classrooms:Recommendations from the Head Start/IBM partnership project. 2ded. Alexandria, VA: Author. National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996). NAEYC position statement: Technology and young children - ages three through eight. Young Children, 51(6), Papert, S. (1980). The connected family: bridging the digital generation gap. New York: Longstreet Press. Papert, S. (1986). Mindstorms: Children, computers and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books. Ray, J. A., & D. Shelton E-pals: Connecting with families through technology. Young Children 59 (3): Theuvenelle, S. & Bewick. C.J. (2003). Completing the computer puzzle: A guide for early childhood educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Wetsel, J.C. (2002). Using technology to help preschool teachers construct knowledge about young children’s classroom environments. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 23(3), Wheatley, K.F Increasing computer use in early childhood teacher education: The case of a “computer muddler.” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 2 (4): 12. Yelland, N.J. (1998). Making sense of gender issues in mathematics and technology. In N.J. Yelland (Ed.). Gender in early childhood (pp ). London: Routledge. Yost, N.J.M. (1998). Computers, kids, and crayons: A comparative study of one kindergarten’s emergent literacy behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International 59(8), University Microfilms.