Presentation on theme: "BA Public Services Management & Strategy Pollard (1978) Developments in Management Thought. London: Heinemann Mike Durke."— Presentation transcript:
1 BA Public Services Management & Strategy Pollard (1978) Developments in Management Thought. London: HeinemannMike Durke
2 FW Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) The father of scientific managementEyesight prevented study so he worked as machinist and pattern makerFWT said scientific management was born in 1882 – worked on it for 30 yrs‘Soldiering’ – natural instinct to take it easy – workers self interest
3 FW Taylor Workers saw managers as enemies = power struggle How to get more output from the workers?Scientific Management = ‘the management of initiative and incentive’Piece-rates and bonusesFWT sought to replace ‘opinions’ with ‘facts in the workplace
4 FW Taylor Always secure full support of top managers Mental revolution of managers and workersFriendly co-operation not hostilityCorrect feeds and speeds for cutting metalOne best way for each single jobIncentive – extra work = extra payFirst-class staff8 functional foremen not one foremanCorrect method for new systems and the right installers
5 FW TaylorThe mental revolution was the real basis of scientific management. Workers were to:Stop fighting over wages and the profitsAccept a scientifically established increase (by facts) of % of wages through effortForget soldiering and help management establish the facts about productionAccept management’s role in determining the what, when, where, how and time constraintsAgree to be trained and follow management’s new methods
6 FW Taylor Management was to: Develop a science for each operation Determine time and method for each jobMatch workers to suitable jobs – train to be as good as he could beOrganise efficiently to remove all responsibility from the worker apart from performance of the jobAgree to be governed by the science and surrender arbitrary power over the workers.
7 Frank B and Lilian M Gilbreth FB started as an apprentice bricklayer then foreman, manager, owner then consultantAccepted and developed FW Taylor’s ideasLM was a psychologist who helped FB and developed her own ideas
8 Frank B and Lilian M Gilbreth Science of motion study‘Systems Management’ – prescribed way of doing things down to the last detail: FB referred to the, “one best way.”FB set down his ‘Field System’ for his managers – rules and procedures applicable to all sitesMain problem was to ensure performance and control at a distance
9 Frank B and Lilian M Gilbreth Motion study articles in American journal Industrial Engineering in 1911Reduce present practice to writingEnumerate motions usedEnumerate variables which affect each motionReduce best practice to writing
10 HL GanttHL worked with FWT at the Bethlehem Steel Works – a helper in the development of scientific managementFWT’s work had been used by some bad managers to oppress - unrealistic expectations on workersHL set a day rate for a job plus a bonus of 20-50% if done in the time set
11 HL GanttIf worker couldn’t do any part of the job in time supervisor was informed.Supervisor would demonstrate that it could be done if not the engineer who set the time would be called.If he couldn’t do it then a new more realistic time would be set.Biggest achievement – Gantt Chart
12 JD Mooney‘Principles of Organisation’ with AC Reilly 1939 – mainly related to changes in US system of government2 main objectives: principles which relate to all organisations; and illustrations relating to Catholic church, army, government and businessVery difficult to read
13 JD Mooney What does ‘organisation’ mean? Precise and definitive approach which claims ‘org’ is a necessary and universalCavemen and co-operationAims and objectives are only the ‘physics’ of an organisationOrganisation means order and orderly procedure
14 JD MooneyDefinition: “organisation is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpose.” (Pollard, p41)
15 PF Drucker Very popular influence on management thought 1950s – new ideas with practical focus as opposed to theoretical1955 – major work, ‘The Practice of Management’ written for managers and those aspiring to management.
16 PF Drucker Focus on different sections in ‘The Practice of Management’ The Nature of Management:“The manager is the dynamic, life giving element in every business.”Managing a Business: serving society – purpose of management is to“Create a customer.”
17 PF DruckerManaging a business: need for innovation and change, the creation of new needs and the setting of objectivesManaging Manager: a fundamental element. Need to direct everyone’s efforts towards the business objectivesStructure of Management: links betewwn structure and practice
18 PF DruckerThe Management of Worker and Work: workers at all levels are human beings with human needsWhat it Means to be a Manager: making the whole greater than the sum of its partsOn leadership he says:“Leadership cannot be created or promoted. It cannot be taught or learned.”
19 PF Drucker 1964 ‘Managing for Results’ Focus on top-level overall management of a businessAnalysis and understanding of resultsOpportunities and decisionsPurposeful Performance
20 Henri FayolManaged a coal mine at 25; 31 general manager of a few mines; 47 Managing Director of mining group for 30 yrs.1916 ‘General and Industrial Management’ (translation in 1929 & 1949)Definition of management:“To forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”
21 Oliver Sheldon Worked for Rowntrees in York. 1920s. Asked practical questions in the light of increased public awareness of industry, workers’ need to develop themselves, overgrowth of many kinds of associations (inc unions) and science (sm re: FWT)Management/worker partnership:“Welfare is essentially a corporate enterprise.”
22 B Seebohm RowntreeMost influential on British management in 1920s and 30s. Quaker, b 1871.Succeeded his dad as Chair of board in 1923 and retired at 70 in 1941.A humanitarian, he wanted workers to co-operate with management: keep workers on-side and don’t overthrow capitalism!Minimum wage: enough to raise a family of 3 children in reasonable comfort
23 Mary Parker Follett1920s and 30s work rediscovered and amplified in 50s and 60s.“One cannot separate work from human beings, their hopes, fears and aspirations, nor can one look on work and business as a series of isolated cause and effects but only as a continuous process of interrelationships between people.”Pollard (1978; p161)
24 Chris Argyris1950s ‘Personality and the Organisation’ - theory of behaviour in industryManagers need self-awareness.Its not possible to understand others unless we understand ourselves and vice versa.
25 Renis Likerts, Institute for Social Research, Michigan – study of management in practice“Supervision is, therefore, always a relative process. To be effective and to communicate as intended, a leader must always adapt his behaviour to take into account the expectations, values, and inter-personal skills of those with whom he is interacting.”Jenkins (1947) ‘A review of leadership studies with particular reference to military problems’,
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.