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Abstract The method of waste water treatment showed a reduction in coliform and E.coli. The E.coli has more of a significant decrease in growth than coliform.

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Presentation on theme: "Abstract The method of waste water treatment showed a reduction in coliform and E.coli. The E.coli has more of a significant decrease in growth than coliform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abstract The method of waste water treatment showed a reduction in coliform and E.coli. The E.coli has more of a significant decrease in growth than coliform. The Enterococci was also decreased through the cycling of waste water in the lagoons. The amount of Enterococci in lagoons 2 and 3 indicate successful wastewater treatment. The waste water treatment system present at NCA&Ts swine farm is effective in decreasing the growth of microbes in the water. This is an environmentally beneficial in water treatment for CAFO areas. Future studies will include: increase in sample size, testing of more strains of bacteria, and testing another water treatment system. The method of waste water treatment showed a reduction in coliform and E.coli. The E.coli has more of a significant decrease in growth than coliform. The Enterococci was also decreased through the cycling of waste water in the lagoons. The amount of Enterococci in lagoons 2 and 3 indicate successful wastewater treatment. The waste water treatment system present at NCA&Ts swine farm is effective in decreasing the growth of microbes in the water. This is an environmentally beneficial in water treatment for CAFO areas. Future studies will include: increase in sample size, testing of more strains of bacteria, and testing another water treatment system. Oliver, Shar (2012). CAFOs as Hotspots: Effect on Ecosystem Services and Needed in Environmental Leadership School of the Environment, Duke Univerisity. Oliver, Shar (2012). CAFOs as Hotspots: Effect on Ecosystem Services and Needed in Environmental Leadership School of the Environment, Duke Univerisity. Introduction References Hypothesis Conclusion Results cont. I would like to thank the Engage2BE program for giving me the opportunity to study wastewater treatment and the process of wastewater bacterial analysis. Thank you to Dr. Stephanie Luster-Teasley for advising me on the lab equipment, data interpretation and terminology. I would also like to thank Vernal McClearly for teaching me how to take composite samples for the experiment. Acknowledgements Results Materials and Methods Testing for Levels of Enterococci and Escherichia Coli using Enterolert and Colilert Test Methods Christopher Porter (Undergraduate), Vernal McCleary (MS Student), Stephanie Luster-Teasley, PhD (advisor) College of Engineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, or CAFOs, are highly favorable for various reasons because they can mass produce numerous food and agricultural products. Merchandise and products from CAFOs can be sold at a much lower price. Because of the engineered high animal product yield from these facilities, their products are cheaper and more economically favorable to the general public. This mass production of products, however, takes an enormous negative toll on the environment. The cattle, poultry, and swine housed within CAFO enclosures release vast amounts of waste into the surrounding environment, particularly nearby bodies of water. NCA&Ts farm houses 60 pigs within a housing enclosure and releases their waste products into lagoon areas on the farm. Once there, the waste products within the water go through an on-site wastewater treatment process that includes two lagoons followed by six sequential wetlands and finishing in a last holding lagoon. This research project involves the retrieval of samples from each lagoon and wetland to test for Enterococci and E.coli levels. To test the levels of these particular strands of bacteria, we used IDEXX Enterolert to test for Enterococci contamination and IDEXX Colilert to test for E.coli. We also tested the swine water for levels of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and pH. Our goal was to determine whether or not the NCAT swine farms waste treatment process was either effective or ineffective in removing significant amounts of Enterococci and E.coli. The U.S population has increased at an alarming rate, the majority of the nations farmers have decided to convert from a small-time style of farming to a much larger and industrialized style of farming. The larger scale methods of farming have been implemented to fulfill the growing supply and demand. Ninety-nine percent of all American meat products come from large industrial farms. As a result of this vast conversion, many CAFOs have begun appearing more readily across the U.S., each with thousands or even tens of thousands of cattle, swine, and poultry in a confined enclosure. The confined animals are fed by rationed amounts of feed. The waste is deposited in one of two places: the farmland to fertilize the farm crops or into a nearby river or stream. These deposit locations become exceedingly hazardous to the neighboring environment and society. The surface water and groundwater can come to be highly contaminated, leading to detrimental effects on the environment. This water contamination often leads to the body of water becoming a host to various strands of bacteria, including E.coli and Enterococci. The North Carolina A&T swine farm is a good example of a Confined Animal Feeding Operation. Housed within are approximately 150 swine units that live in a confined area whose waste are dumped into the primary lagoon. Unlike most CAFOs, the A&Ts swine farm has a wastewater treatment system that allows the wastewater to be funneled in a subterranean pump through the primary lagoon, into the secondary lagoon, and six sequential wetlands using gravitational means. Once it is done funneling through the treatment system, it is deposited into the third and final lagoon which is used for the plumbing systems in the farms housing units. The hypothesis of this study is that NCA&Ts swine water treatment effectively decreases the amount of Enterococci and E. coli. Sample collection Samples were collected from six wetland areas and three lagoon areas using a 250mL beaker. The samples were contained in 1 L bottles and labeled accordingly. Figure 1- overhead view of sampled areas showing lagoons and wetlands used to treat wastewater on the NCAT farm swine unit. Dissolved oxygen and pH measurements The dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured with the Accumet XL40 Dissolved Oxygen meter and the pH was measured with the Orion 4-Star pH meter. Quantifying Enterococci and E. coli The samples were refrigerated for 24hours to allow the suspended solids to settle out of the water. A sample dilution of 1:10 -2 each sample was used for quantification in the IDEXX Enterolert and IDEXX Colilert. The IDEXX Enterolert was used for quantifying Enterococci and the IDEXX Colilert was used for quantifying E.coli. Location DO meter Reading(mg/L) pH meter Reading Wetland# Wetland# Wetland# Wetland# Wetland#5n/a Wetland#6n/a Lagoon# Lagoon# Lagoon# Table 1-The measurements of dissolved oxygen and pH are indicated for the wetlands and lagoons. Table 2- Shows the most probable number (MPN) of tested coliform and E. coli among the samples collected. Location Coliform presence Dilution 1:100 (MPN) E.Coli presence Dilution 1:100 (MPN) Large Cells Small Cells ABC Large Cells Small Cells ABC ABCABCABCABC Wetland# > > Wetland# 2 n/a Wetland# > Wetland# <1 > < Wetland# > Wetland# 6 n/a Lagoon# > Lagoon# 2 n/a Lagoon# 3 n/a Lagoon 1Lagoon 2Lagoon 3 Large cell count (glow) Small cell count (glow) 4811 MPN/100 ml> DO (mg/l) pH Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert)Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Table 3- Recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Table 3.recorded values for 100% concentration of Lagoon wastewater. (Enterolert) Figure 2- IDEXX Result Imaging (Left image: Test for total coliform; Right image: Tests for both E.Coli and Enterococci) Discussion Wetlands 5 and 6 at the time did not contain any water for proper sampling. Also, samples from Wetlands 1 through 6 will be collected at a later date for enterolert data. Colilert data for Lagoon 2 and 3 will be collected during later experimentation.


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