2Objectives Distinguish between point and nonpoint sources of pollution Identify the ways in which human wastewater can cause water pollutionEvaluate the different technologies that humans have developed for treating wastewaterIdentify the major types of heavy metals and other substances that pose serious hazards to humans and the environment.Discuss the impact of oil spills and how such spills can be remediatedIdentify contaminants that are nonchemical pollutants.Explain the connections among industrialization, affluence, and water-pollution legislation.
3Title: The Chesapeake Bay Answer in Cornell Style form on a separate sheet of paper.1. What is an estuary?a. How is the Chesapeake Bay an estuary?b. Can you think of any local areas like this?2. What is a watershed?a. What type of areas are located within the Chesapeake Bay watershed?3. What hazards does an abundance of nutrients present to the Chesapeake Bay?4. What are the 3 major sources of nitrogen and phosphorous in the Chesapeake Bay?a. What problems can an algal bloom pose to the Bay?5. What are sediments?Why do sediments pose a problem to the Bay?6. What are anthropogenic chemicals?a. What problems do these chemicals pose to the Bay?7. What is the Action Plan that has been developed to restore the Bay?
4Water PollutionWater pollution- the contamination of streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or groundwater with substances produced through human activities and that negatively affect organisms.Point sources- distinct locations that pump waste into a waterway.Nonpoint sources- diffuse areas such as an entire farming region that pollutes a waterway.
6Human WastewaterWater produced by human activities such as human sewage from toilets and gray water from bathing and washing clothes or dishes.
7Three reasons scientists are concerned about human wastewater: Oxygen-demanding wastes like bacteria that put a large demand for oxygen in the waterNutrients that are released from wastewater decomposition can make the water more fertile causing eutrophicationWastewater can carry a wide variety of disease- causing organisms.
8Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) BOD- the amount of oxygen a quantity of water uses over a period of time at a specific temperature.Lower BOD values indicate the water is less polluted and higher BOD values indicate it is more polluted by wastewater.
9EutrophicationEutrophication is an abundance of fertility to a body of water.Eutrophication is caused by an increase in nutrients, such as fertilizers.Eutrophication can cause a rapid growth of algae which eventually dies, causing the microbes to increase the BOD.
10Common Diseases from Human Wastewater CholeraTyphoid feverStomach fluDiarrheaHepatitis
11Treatments for Human and Animal Wastewater Septic systems- a large container that receives wastewater from the house.
12Treatments for Human and Animal Wastewater Sewage Treatment Plants- centralized plants in areas with large populations that receive wastewater via a network of underground pipes.
14Treatments for Human and Animal Wastewater Manure lagoons- large, human-made ponds line with rubber to prevent the manure from leaking into the groundwater. After the manure is broken down by bacteria, it is spread onto fields as fertilizers.
15Do the Math: Building a Manure Lagoon Concentrated animal feeding operations is typically use manure lagoons to hold the manure produced by the cattle that are being held.If an individual animal produces 53 L of manure each day and the average concentrated animal feeding operations holds 900 cattle on any given day, how much manure is produced each day?Daily Manure Production =53 L/animal X 900 animals = 47,7000 L/dayIf a manure lagoon needs to hold 30 days’ worth of manure productions, what is the minimum capacity of the lagoon.After the manure has broken down, you need to spread the manure onto farm fields. A modern manure spreader can hold 40,000 L of liquid manure. How many trips will it take for the manure spreader to remove the 30 days’ worth of manure that is held in the manure lagoon.
16Heavy Metals and Other Substances that can threaten human Health and the Environment LeadArsenicMercuryAcidsSynthetic compounds (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and hormones)
23Ways to Remediate Oil Pollution Containment using booms to keep the floating oil from spreading.Chemicals that help break up the oil, making it disperse before it hits the shoreline.Bacteria that are genetically engineered to consume oil
24Other Water Pollutants Solid waste pollution (garbage)Sediment pollution (sand, silt and clay)Thermal pollutionNoise pollution
28Water LawsClean Water Act- (1972) supports the “protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water”.Issued water quality standards that defined acceptable limits of various pollutants in U.S. waterways.
29Water LawsSafe Drinking Water Act- (1974, 1986, 1996) sets the national standards for safe drinking water.It is responsible for establishing maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for 77 different elements or substances in both surface water and groundwater.