2Galvanic Applied Sciences Inc. Galvanic Applied Sciences is a Canada-based company that has facilities in Boston and England and representation all over the world. The company develops electronic technology for Gas and Liquids analysis.Head Office7000 Fisher Road SE, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaWebsite:
3Gas AnalyzersLead Acetate Tape Analysers for Hydrogen Sulphide and Total Sulphur DeterminationElectronicVolumeCorrectorsSulphur ChromatographGas Chromatograph for BTU and Composition measurement in Natural GasSRU Analysers for Tail Gas, Sulphur Pits and Oxygen Demand
4Liquids AnalyzersAcoustic and Optic Analysers for Turbidity, Color and Concentration measurements.Field Programmable UV AnalyzersOnline Automatic TitratorsOnline Viscosity Analysers
8Sulfur Chemiluminescence Chemiluminescence: A chemical reaction which produces light.Reaction FurnaceR-S + O SO2 + other products of combustionSO2 + H SO + H2OChemiluminescence ChamberSO + O SO2* + O2SO2* SO2 + Light (350 nm)
9ChromatographySeparation of complex mixtures based on selective adsorption whereby the components of the mixture can be identified and quantified.
10Gas ChromatographThe gas chromatograph consists of three major components.The injection systemThe separation columnsThe detectorThe injection system and separation columns are located in a temperature controlled oven.
11Retention TimeThe elapsed time between when sample is injected into the column to when a specific compound is detected.Each component in the mixture has a specific retention time.The retention time is used to identify the component.
12Peak AreaThe area under the peak as calculated by a software algorithm.The peak area determines the concentration of the component
13Typical Chromatogram Retention Time Butane 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 10203040506070801163146617691106121136151166181196211226241256271286SecondsH2SMeSHEtSHDMSCS2i-PrSH40 ppm9 ppm35 ppm70 ppm30 ppmColumn: 30 m x 0.53 mm id MTX 1@ 60°C isothermal.Retention Time
14Typical Retention Times For Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas @ 50°C H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) secCOS (Carbonyl Sulfide) secMeSH(Methyl Mercaptans) 120 secEtSH(Ethyl Mercaptans) secDMS(Dimethyl Sulfide) secCS2(Carbon Disulfide) seci-PrSH(iso-Propyl Mercaptan) 250 sect-BuSH(tertiary Butyl Mercaptan) secn-PrSH (normal-Propyl Mercaptan) secTHT (Tetrahydrothiophene) 630 sec
15842 Sulfur Analyzer Sulfur specific gas chromatograph. Identify and quantify individual sulfur compounds in gas streams.
17Measuring SulphurSulfur is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine.Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in black gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides.Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. In nonscientific context it can also be referred to as brimstone.S
19Tariffs Most pipeline companies enforce tariffs, these are to: Protect against corrosionProvide safetyAid with odorizationEnvironmental purposes (SO2 emissions)Typically the tariff for H2S is 4 ppm and 16 ppm for TS (or ¼ grain and 1 grain respectfully)
20ASTM StandardsMany regulatory agencies such as EPA or DOT may make reference to ASTM standardsLead Acetate Tape adheres to the following ASTM standardsDDDD (most commonly referred to)
22Acid RainThe combustion of Sulphur-Based compounds generates Sulphur dioxide (SO2), part of this Sulphur Dioxide goes to the atmosphere and its source is combustion of gases with high content of Total Sulphur.S + O2 → SO2Sulphur dioxide in presence of the atmospheric humidity (water) becomes Sulphuric Acid:SO3(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(l)Sulphuric Acid precipitates back to the ground as Acid Rain.
24Refining Diesel Total Sulfur (500 ppm) New regulation is 15 ppm GasolineTotal Sulfur 30 ppmSulfur ChromatographyPropyl Mercaptan and ThiophenesKerosene and Other FuelsLiquified Petroleum Gases (Propane/Butane)H2S, COS, Other SulfursFuel GasStack EmissionsTotal Reduced Sulfur (TRS)H2S, COS, MERCAPTANS
26Natural Gas Pipeline Product Quality 4 ppm H2S and 16 ppm TS Ordorants Mercaptan analysis to ensure gas is properly odorizedanalysis to ensure no odorant is in the gas as some customers may have sensitive processesCorrosion ControlH2S measurementProduction4 ppm H2S , 16 ppm TS, Naturally occurring mercaptansPlant InletHigh concentrations of H2SFlare LinesEnvironmental regulations
27Other Pulp and Paper Environmental TRS - H2S, COS and Mercaptans Thermal PowerThermal SteamH2S as a byproduct from the steamCO2 (Food Grade)Product QualityTrace (ppb) Total Sulfur
29What does the 842 offer? Linearity Equimolar Response Repeatability SensitivityIndependent of MatrixFeatures
30Equimolar ResponseEach sulfur compound exhibits the same response characteristicProvides Quantitive and Qualitative Total Sulfur measurementChromatograph can calibrated using single component standard reducing calibration complexity
31Repeatability Generally results are +/- 1% or better Ideal for applications requiring process control
32Sensitivity Able to resolve 10 ppb in Gases and 100 ppb in Liquids lower ranges availablebetter resolution
33Linearity 4 orders of magnitude ppb to percent on the same detection principleallows calibration to be done with higher concentration standard for ppb applications
34Independent of MatrixHydrocarbon changes do not affect the overall measurementMultistreamingBatching applicationsBlendingProcess upsets
35Features Autocalibration Combustion On-Board Microprocessor reduces overall maintenanceCombustioncross flow design provides complete combustion enhancing measurementOn-Board MicroprocessorNo PC required for operation of the analyzer
36Features Low maintenance Simple Design General mantenance is required only quarterly for system with vacuum pumpVirtually maintenance free with use of air driven vacuum transducerSimple DesignEasy to maintain and troubleshoot
39Capillary Column Metal coated capillary column for durability. 30 meter Wall coated open tubular (WCOT) column has thin layer of liquid on inner diameter of a thin tube.Useful for complex separations up to C4 mercaptans or sulfides.
40842 Injection System10 port Helium actuated valve for sample injection and column backflush.
41Sulfur Chemiluminescence Chemiluminescence: A chemical reaction which produces light.Reaction FurnaceR-S + O SO2 + other products of combustionSO2 + H SO + H2OChemiluminescence ChamberSO + O SO2* + O2SO2* SO2 + Light (350 nm)
42Step 1: CombustionSulfur CompoundHydrogenOxygenSulfur compound reacted with air and hydrogen at 750oC under vacuum to form sulfur monoxide (SO).SO
56Utility Gases Carrier Gas. UHP Helium supplied by dual stage bottle regulator at 80 psig.Controlled at analyzer by carrier gas regulator and mass flow controller.Helium also controlled to 60 psi by another regulator for valve actuation.
57Utility Gases Hydrogen. UHP Hydrogen supplied by dual stage bottle regulator at 60 psig.Flow is controlled by mass flow controller.
58Utility Gases Ozone Combustion Air PMT Purge. Drawn from ambient air through dessicator.Flow is controlled by rotameter.Combustion AirPMT Purge.Prevents condensation on PMT. Instrument air or nitrogen can be used.
59Utility Gases Calibration Gas. 5 - 10 ppm H2S in Nitrogen. Supply at 15 psig with stainless steel dual stage bottle regulator.
60Maintenance CyclePerform regular preventative maintenance every 3 months.Change pump oil every cycle.Change inlet trap every cycle.Use 50/50 mix of charcoal and desiccant.Replace valve diaphragm as needed.1,000,000 cycles.Replace air desiccant as needed.Ceramic tubes should not need to be replaced.
61Specifications Specifications Detection limit 0-10 ppb Number of Streams4 plus calibrationSample InjectionValco Model VIIILinearity2%RepeatabilityCycle time5 minutesElectrical ClasificationClass I, Division 1 and 2, Groups B, C and D.Power Consumption600 watts at 120 VAC
62Specifications Specifications Electronic Platform Dallas 87C530. Microprocessor c/w 20 Bit A/D, 12 Bit D/A, 4-20 ma Output, and Intrinsically Safe KeypadOutputs2, 4-20 ma Scaled, 4-20 ma Raw Sensor, 6–5 amp SPDT Relays, Modbus, Optional ma Outputs (User Assignable)Contact InputsRemote Calibration Start, 4 Status (Dry Contacts)Dimensions36”H x 34”W x 12”DWeight250 lbs