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Galvanic Applied Sciences

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Presentation on theme: "Galvanic Applied Sciences"— Presentation transcript:

1 Galvanic Applied Sciences

2 Galvanic Applied Sciences Inc.
Galvanic Applied Sciences is a Canada-based company that has facilities in Boston and England and representation all over the world. The company develops electronic technology for Gas and Liquids analysis. Head Office 7000 Fisher Road SE, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Website:

3 Gas Analyzers Lead Acetate Tape Analysers for Hydrogen Sulphide and Total Sulphur Determination Electronic Volume Correctors Sulphur Chromatograph Gas Chromatograph for BTU and Composition measurement in Natural Gas SRU Analysers for Tail Gas, Sulphur Pits and Oxygen Demand

4 Liquids Analyzers Acoustic and Optic Analysers for Turbidity, Color and Concentration measurements. Field Programmable UV Analyzers Online Automatic Titrators Online Viscosity Analysers


6 842/843 Sulphur Chromatography Analysers

7 Measurement Priniciple

8 Sulfur Chemiluminescence
Chemiluminescence: A chemical reaction which produces light. Reaction Furnace R-S + O SO2 + other products of combustion SO2 + H SO + H2O Chemiluminescence Chamber SO + O SO2* + O2 SO2* SO2 + Light (350 nm)

9 Chromatography Separation of complex mixtures based on selective adsorption whereby the components of the mixture can be identified and quantified.

10 Gas Chromatograph The gas chromatograph consists of three major components. The injection system The separation columns The detector The injection system and separation columns are located in a temperature controlled oven.

11 Retention Time The elapsed time between when sample is injected into the column to when a specific compound is detected. Each component in the mixture has a specific retention time. The retention time is used to identify the component.

12 Peak Area The area under the peak as calculated by a software algorithm. The peak area determines the concentration of the component

13 Typical Chromatogram Retention Time Butane 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 Seconds H2S MeSH EtSH DMS CS2 i-PrSH 40 ppm 9 ppm 35 ppm 70 ppm 30 ppm Column: 30 m x 0.53 mm id MTX 1 @ 60°C isothermal. Retention Time

14 Typical Retention Times For Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas @ 50°C
H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) sec COS (Carbonyl Sulfide) sec MeSH(Methyl Mercaptans) 120 sec EtSH(Ethyl Mercaptans) sec DMS(Dimethyl Sulfide) sec CS2(Carbon Disulfide) sec i-PrSH(iso-Propyl Mercaptan) 250 sec t-BuSH(tertiary Butyl Mercaptan) sec n-PrSH (normal-Propyl Mercaptan) sec THT (Tetrahydrothiophene) 630 sec

15 842 Sulfur Analyzer Sulfur specific gas chromatograph.
Identify and quantify individual sulfur compounds in gas streams.

16 Applications

17 Measuring Sulphur Sulfur is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in black gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. In nonscientific context it can also be referred to as brimstone. S

18 Typical Sulfur Compounds

19 Tariffs Most pipeline companies enforce tariffs, these are to:
Protect against corrosion Provide safety Aid with odorization Environmental purposes (SO2 emissions) Typically the tariff for H2S is 4 ppm and 16 ppm for TS (or ¼ grain and 1 grain respectfully)

20 ASTM Standards Many regulatory agencies such as EPA or DOT may make reference to ASTM standards Lead Acetate Tape adheres to the following ASTM standards D D D D (most commonly referred to)

21 ASTM Standards

22 Acid Rain The combustion of Sulphur-Based compounds generates Sulphur dioxide (SO2), part of this Sulphur Dioxide goes to the atmosphere and its source is combustion of gases with high content of Total Sulphur. S + O2 → SO2 Sulphur dioxide in presence of the atmospheric humidity (water) becomes Sulphuric Acid: SO3(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(l) Sulphuric Acid precipitates back to the ground as Acid Rain.

23 Potential Markets Refining Petrochemical Natural Gas Other

24 Refining Diesel Total Sulfur (500 ppm) New regulation is 15 ppm
Gasoline Total Sulfur 30 ppm Sulfur Chromatography Propyl Mercaptan and Thiophenes Kerosene and Other Fuels Liquified Petroleum Gases (Propane/Butane) H2S, COS, Other Sulfurs Fuel Gas Stack Emissions Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) H2S, COS, MERCAPTANS

25 Petrochemical Ethylene / Propylene
Trace Levels - Product Quality/ Catalyst Protection H2S, COS, MeSH, TS Liquified Petroleum Gases Feed Stock - Catalyst Protection H2S, COS, TS Syngas H2, CO, CO2, CH4 Product Quality / Catalyst Protection Trace (ppb) H2S and TS Fertilizer Catalyst Protection Feedstock is generally Natural Gas Other

26 Natural Gas Pipeline Product Quality 4 ppm H2S and 16 ppm TS Ordorants
Mercaptan analysis to ensure gas is properly odorized analysis to ensure no odorant is in the gas as some customers may have sensitive processes Corrosion Control H2S measurement Production 4 ppm H2S , 16 ppm TS, Naturally occurring mercaptans Plant Inlet High concentrations of H2S Flare Lines Environmental regulations

27 Other Pulp and Paper Environmental TRS - H2S, COS and Mercaptans
Thermal Power Thermal Steam H2S as a byproduct from the steam CO2 (Food Grade) Product Quality Trace (ppb) Total Sulfur

28 Features and Benefits

29 What does the 842 offer? Linearity Equimolar Response Repeatability
Sensitivity Independent of Matrix Features

30 Equimolar Response Each sulfur compound exhibits the same response characteristic Provides Quantitive and Qualitative Total Sulfur measurement Chromatograph can calibrated using single component standard reducing calibration complexity

31 Repeatability Generally results are +/- 1% or better
Ideal for applications requiring process control

32 Sensitivity Able to resolve 10 ppb in Gases and 100 ppb in Liquids
lower ranges available better resolution

33 Linearity 4 orders of magnitude
ppb to percent on the same detection principle allows calibration to be done with higher concentration standard for ppb applications

34 Independent of Matrix Hydrocarbon changes do not affect the overall measurement Multistreaming Batching applications Blending Process upsets

35 Features Autocalibration Combustion On-Board Microprocessor
reduces overall maintenance Combustion cross flow design provides complete combustion enhancing measurement On-Board Microprocessor No PC required for operation of the analyzer

36 Features Low maintenance Simple Design
General mantenance is required only quarterly for system with vacuum pump Virtually maintenance free with use of air driven vacuum transducer Simple Design Easy to maintain and troubleshoot

37 General Description of the Instrument

38 842 Oven

39 Capillary Column Metal coated capillary column for durability.
30 meter Wall coated open tubular (WCOT) column has thin layer of liquid on inner diameter of a thin tube. Useful for complex separations up to C4 mercaptans or sulfides.

40 842 Injection System 10 port Helium actuated valve for sample injection and column backflush.

41 Sulfur Chemiluminescence
Chemiluminescence: A chemical reaction which produces light. Reaction Furnace R-S + O SO2 + other products of combustion SO2 + H SO + H2O Chemiluminescence Chamber SO + O SO2* + O2 SO2* SO2 + Light (350 nm)

42 Step 1: Combustion Sulfur Compound Hydrogen Oxygen Sulfur compound reacted with air and hydrogen at 750oC under vacuum to form sulfur monoxide (SO). SO

43 Reaction Furnace

44 Step 2: Chemiluminescence
Sulfur monoxide is reacted with ozone in the reaction chamber to form SO2 and LIGHT.

45 Reaction Cell

46 Step 3: Detection by PMT Light is detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Photomultiplier tube generates a current proportional to amount of sulfur present. SO Ozone Ozone Light

47 Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)

48 Thermoelectric Coolers
PMT operates best at 0 – 5o C. Two Peltier Elements wired in series are used to keep PMT cool Dry air purge is used to prevent water condensation on PMT.

49 Detector Assembled

50 PMT Power Supply PMT requires 1100 VDC for operation.
PMT power supply has 24 VDC input and 1100 VDC output.

51 Amplifier Amplifier converts PMT current to millivolts
Dipswitches are used for signal attenuation

52 Ozone Generator Ozone is supplied from an onboard ozone generator.
Air is passed through a steel tube at 7500 VAC. Atmospheric oxygen is converted to ozone.

53 Vacuum The sample combustion and chemiluminescence are done at near vacuum conditions to preserve the SO intermediate.

54 Chemiluminescence Flow Schematic

55 Services and Utilities

56 Utility Gases Carrier Gas.
UHP Helium supplied by dual stage bottle regulator at 80 psig. Controlled at analyzer by carrier gas regulator and mass flow controller. Helium also controlled to 60 psi by another regulator for valve actuation.

57 Utility Gases Hydrogen.
UHP Hydrogen supplied by dual stage bottle regulator at 60 psig. Flow is controlled by mass flow controller.

58 Utility Gases Ozone Combustion Air PMT Purge.
Drawn from ambient air through dessicator. Flow is controlled by rotameter. Combustion Air PMT Purge. Prevents condensation on PMT. Instrument air or nitrogen can be used.

59 Utility Gases Calibration Gas. 5 - 10 ppm H2S in Nitrogen.
Supply at 15 psig with stainless steel dual stage bottle regulator.

60 Maintenance Cycle Perform regular preventative maintenance every 3 months. Change pump oil every cycle. Change inlet trap every cycle. Use 50/50 mix of charcoal and desiccant. Replace valve diaphragm as needed. 1,000,000 cycles. Replace air desiccant as needed. Ceramic tubes should not need to be replaced.

61 Specifications Specifications Detection limit 0-10 ppb
Number of Streams 4 plus calibration Sample Injection Valco Model VIII Linearity 2% Repeatability Cycle time 5 minutes Electrical Clasification Class I, Division 1 and 2, Groups B, C and D. Power Consumption 600 watts at 120 VAC

62 Specifications Specifications Electronic Platform
Dallas 87C530. Microprocessor c/w 20 Bit A/D, 12 Bit D/A, 4-20 ma Output, and Intrinsically Safe Keypad Outputs 2, 4-20 ma Scaled, 4-20 ma Raw Sensor, 6–5 amp SPDT Relays, Modbus, Optional ma Outputs (User Assignable) Contact Inputs Remote Calibration Start, 4 Status (Dry Contacts) Dimensions 36”H x 34”W x 12”D Weight 250 lbs

63 Recommended Spare Parts
PMT BA0755 Valve Rebuild Kit BA1274 Ceramic Tubes MC0745/MC0746 Pump Oil CO01672 Charcoal CO1746 Moisture Trap Refill CO0888 1/8” Teflon Ferrules 1/16” Teflon Ferrules

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