2ORSAT APPARATUS This apparatus involves the following Introduction ConstructionWorkingIncludes three steps.PrecautionsCalculation
3INTRODUCTIONTo have proper control on combustion process, an idea about complete or complete combustion of fuel is made by the analysis of flue gas. Thus,(i) if the gases contain considerable amount of carbon monoxide, it indicates that incomplete combustion is occurring (i.e. considerable wastage of fuel is taking flue).
4INTRODUCTION Contd..Also indicates the short supply of oxygen for combustion(ii) if the flue gases contain a considerable amount of oxygen, it indicates the oxygen supply is in excess, though the combustion may be complete.The analysis of flue gases made with the help of ORSAT’S APPARATUS.
6CONSTRUCTIONConsists of a water-jacketed measuring burette, connected in series to a set of three absorption bulbs, each through a stop-cock.The other end is provided with a three-way stop-cock, the free end of which is further connected to a U-tube packed with glass wool (for avoiding the incoming of any smoke particles, etc.)
7CONSTRUCTION Contd..The graduated burette is surrounded by a water-jacket to keep the temperature of the gas constant during the experiment.The lower end of the burette is connected to a water reservoir by means of a long rubber tubing.The absorption bulbs are usually filled with glass tubes, so that the surface area of contact between the gas and the solution is increased.
8CONSTRUCTION Contd..The absorption bulbs have solutions for the absorption of CO2, O2 and CO respectively.First bulb has ‘potassium hydroxide’ solution (250g KOH in 500mL of boiled distilled water), and it absorbs only CO2.Second bulb has a solution of ‘alkaline pyrogallic acid’ (25g pyrogallic acid+200g KOH in 500 mL of distilled water) and it can absorb CO2 and O2.
9CONSTRUCTION Contd..Third bulb contains ‘ammonical cuprous chloride’ (100g cuprous chloride mL liquor ammonia+375 mL of water) and it can absorb CO2, O2 and CO.Hence, it is necessary that the flue gas is passed first through potassium hydroxide bulb, where CO2 is absorbed, then through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb, when only O2 will be absorbed ( because CO2 has already been removed) and finally through ammonical cuprous chloride bulb, where only CO will be absorbed.
10WORKINGSTEP 1The whole apparatus is thoroughly cleaned, stoppers greased and then tested for air-tightness.The absorption bulbs are filled with their respective solutions to level just below their rubber connections.Their stop-cocks are then closed. The jacket and levelling reservoir are filled with water.
11WORKING Contd.. STEP 1 Contd.. The three-way stop-cock is opened to the atmosphere and reservoir is raised, till the burette is completely filled with water and air is excluded from the burette.The three-way stop-cock is now connected to the flue gas supply and the reservoir is lowered to draw in the gas, to be analysed, in the burette.
12WORKING Contd.. STEP 1 Contd.. the sample gas mixed with some air is present in the apparatus. So the three-way stop-cock is opened to the atmosphere, and the gas expelled out by raising the reservoir.This process of sucking and exhausting of gas is repeated 3-4 times, so as to expel the air from the capillary connecting tubes, etc.Finally, gas is sucked in the burette and the volume of the flue gas is adjusted to 100 mL at atmospheric pressure.
13WORKING Contd.. STEP 1 Contd.. For adjusting final volume, the three-way stop-cock is opened to atmosphere and the reservoir is carefully raised, till the level ofwater in it is the same as in the burette, which stands at 100 mL mark.The three-way stop-cock is then closed.
14WORKING Contd..STEP 2The stopper of the absorption bulb, containing caustic potash solution, is opened and all the gas is forced into this bulb by raising the water reservoir.The gas is again sent to the burette.This process is repeated several times to ensure complete absorption of CO2 [by KOH solution].
15WORKING Contd.. STEP 2 Contd.. The unabsorbed gas is finally taken back to the burette, till the level of solution in the CO2 absorption bulb stands at the constant mark and then, its stop-cock is closed.The levels of water in the burette and reservoir are equalised and the volume of residual gas is noted.The decrease in volume-gives the volume of CO2 in 100 mL of the flue gas sample.
16WORKING Contd..STEP 3The volumes of O2 and CO are similarly determined by passing the remaining gas through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb and ammonical cuprous chloride bulb respectively.The gas remaining in burette after absorption of CO2, O2 and CO is taken as nitrogen.
17PRECAUTIONSThe reagents in the absorption bulb 1, 2 and 3 are brought to the etched mark levels one-by-one by operating the reservoir bottle and the valve of each bulb. Then their respective valves are closed.All the air in the reservoir bottle is expelled to atmosphere by lifting the reservoir bottle and opening the three-way to atmosphere.
18PRECAUTIONSThe three-way is then connected to the flue gas supply and the reservoir bottle is brought down, until the level in the burette becomes zero (i.e., 100 mL of gas is taken in the burette). The gas in the burette is expelled to the atmosphere to remove any air left in the joints, tubes, etc. This procedure is repeated 2-3 times to ensure a right sample of the gas taken for analysis.
19PRECAUTIONSIt is quite necessary to follow the order of absorbing gases: CO2 first, O2 second and CO last. This is because the absorbent used for O2 (i.e., alkaline pyrogallic acid) can absorb only some CO2 and the percentage CO2 left would be less; while the percentage of O2 thus-detected would be more. The absorbent used for CO2, however, does not absorb O2 or CO2.The % CO in the flue gas is very small and this should be measured quite carefully.
20CalculationA hydrocarbon is burnt with excess air. The Orsat analysis of the flue gas shows 10.81% CO2, 3.78% O2 and N2. Calculate the atomic ratio of C:H in the hydrocarbon and the % excess air.
21Calculations:100 moles of dry flue gas (i.e., excepting H2O)The Orsat analysis shows the compositions of the flue gases by not taking into account of H2O.From the composition of air(mole %),Here, nitrogen is the tie component.79 mole of N2 h 21 mole of O2Therefore, O2 that is entering the burner = 85.4 x 21/79 = 22.7C + O2 à CO21 mole of CO2 h 1 mole of O2 h 1 atom of C ( i.e.,1 mole of O2 reacts with 1 atom of C to produce 1 mole of CO2)Therefore, O2 used up for reacting with carbon = mole and,Carbon in the hydrocarbon = atomsO2 reacted with Hydrogen in the hydrocarbon = ( ) = 8.114H + O2 à 2H2O1 mole of O2 reacts with 4 atoms of hydrogen.Therefore, hydrogen in the hydrocarbon = 8.11 x 4 = atoms.C:H ratio in the hydrocarbon = 1 : 32.44/10.81 = 1 : 3Theoretical air demand = air needed for complete conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide and hydrogen to water vapor% excess air = 100 x (actual air used - theoretical air demand) / theoretical air demand= 100 x ( ( ))/( ) = 20%