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1 Intra-Muslim Relations in Indonesia: Towards a better understanding of the right to freedom of religion and belief Presented by Gugun Gumilar At Temple.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Intra-Muslim Relations in Indonesia: Towards a better understanding of the right to freedom of religion and belief Presented by Gugun Gumilar At Temple."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Intra-Muslim Relations in Indonesia: Towards a better understanding of the right to freedom of religion and belief Presented by Gugun Gumilar At Temple University (SUSI Religious Pluralism 2013) February 2nd,

2 2

3 INDONESIA IS NEITHER ISLAMIC NOR SECULAR STATE, BUT PANCASILA-BASED-STATE 3

4 4 Philosophical Foundation of the Indonesian State (PANCASILA) 1. Belief in the one and only God, 2. Just and civilized humanity, 3. The unity of Indonesia 4. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives 5. Social Justice for all of the people of Indonesia

5 Indonesian people are tolerant society, respecting for cultural and ethnic diversity, This nation uphold the motto of Bhineka Tunggal Ika means Unity in Diversity Pancasila as the countrys fundamental philosophy for life of society for decades PANCASILA-BASED- STATE COUNTRY. Historical and socio context 5

6 INDONESIA IS THE LARGEST MUSLIM COUNTRY IN THE WORLD (82%) OF TOTAL POPULATION ARE MUSLIMS 6

7 ISLAMIC BRANCHES SUNNI: 99, 80% (Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al- Jamaah/People of the Prophet Muhammad and the community) SHIA : 0, 2% Shia holds that Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad Family and certain individual among His descendants, who are known as Imam, have special spiritual and political rule over the community) 7 ISLAMIC BRANCHES

8 NAHDLATUL ULAMA(NU) Founded in 1926, NU has a nationwide presence but remains strongest in rural Java. NU followers has heavy infusions of Javanese culture, and tend to reject a literal or dogmatic interpretation of Islamic doctrine. They give great deference to the views, interpretations, and instructions of senior NU religious figures, called "Kyais" or "Ulama. Pesantren is the main teaching of Islam NU and Muhammadiyah are two largest Muslim organization. Both are Moderate, meaning they are neither liberal nor radical MUHAMMADIYAH: Founded in 1912, Muhammadiyah runs mosques, prayer houses, clinics, orphanages, poorhouses, schools, public libraries, and universities. Muhammadiyah is a more modern organization. 8 MUSLIM ORGANIZATION

9 RADICAL-CONSERVATIVE MUSLIM In Indonesian context, radical-conservative Muslim can be seen through their ideas such as: (1) Understanding the Quran literally. Rejecting modern interpretation of Quran. (2) Being exclusive and rejecting the possible truth of the others. They reject the concept of religious pluralism. (3) Al-Islamu huwa al-hal/Islam is the solution. They try to Islamize all public matters through many ways such as building Islamic caliphate and Islamic state, enforcing Islamic law (in their own version) to be national law. (4) They tend to discriminate women, non-Muslim, and even Muslim who have opposite opinion. (5) They allow the use of violent ways to the others they accused as un- Islamic. 9

10 Violation forms of religious freedom Resource:Human Rights Report of ELSAM

11 Category of religious freedom violators 11

12 WHY MUSLIM BECOME RADICAL-CONSERVATIVE? THEOLOGY 1. Model of Text Interpretation (literally) 2. Misunderstanding of Jihad POLITICS 1. Radical conservatism as a global phenomenon 2. Transition. From new-order that completely eliminated radical-conservative groups to reformation order that give such groups opportunity to spread out) 3. Political consensus and Response. Radical conservative is not only religion movement, but political. Also, they respond not only to the local political events but to the global. ECONOMY 1. The failure of economic development. 2. The critiques toward global capitalism 3. The politicization of marginalized people SOCIO-CULTURE 1. The anger towards the invasion of western negative cultures, such as hedonism, consumerism, and permissiveness. Permissive cultures fade religious values and norms, increase free sex, prostitution, and drug abuses. 12

13 WHY MUSLIM BECOME RADICAL-CONSERVATIVE? ECONOMY 1. The failure of economic development. 2. The critiques toward global capitalism 3. The politicization of marginalized people MEDIA 1. The transmission of medias (book, magazine, tabloid, bulletin etc) from other radical conservative groups to similar groups in Indonesia 2. Media as socialization means for spreading radical-conservative ideas. 13

14 ISLAM IS A PEACEFUL RELIGION Quran Sura 21 Al-Anbiya: - Ayat 107 Transliteration: 21:107 Wama arsalnaka illa rahmatan lilalamiin ENGLISH 21:107 We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures. 14

15 References Achmad, Nur Pluralitas Agama (Kerukunan Dalam Keragaman).jakarta: Kompas. A la, Abd Nilai-Nilai Pluralisme Dalam Islam. Bandung: Nuansa. Arifin, H.M Kapita Selekta Pendidikan (Islam Dan Umum). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Baidhawy, Zakiyuddin Pendidikan Agama Berwawasan Multikultural. Jakarta: Erlangga. Dipoyudo, Kirdi. Pancasila: Arti dan Pelaksanaannya. Jakarta: Centre For Strategic and International Studies. Hasbullah Kapita Selekta Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada. Hasbullah Sejarah Pendidikan Islam Di Indonesia. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo. Huberman, Michael & Milles Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta: UI Press. Kaswadi, K Pendidikan Nilai Memasuki Tahun Jakarta: PT Grafindo Mangunhardjana, A Pembinaan: Arti dan Metodenya. Yogyakarta: KANISIUS. Misrawi, Zuhairi Pandangan Muslim Moderat (Toleransi, Terorisme, dan Oase Perdamaian). Jakarta: Kompas. Moleong, Lexy J Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Moleong, Lexy J Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Riyadi, Hendar Melampaui Pluralisme. Jakarta: RMBOOK & PSAP. Shofan, Moh Menegakkan Pluralisme. Jakarta: LSAF. Sulthon. H.M. dan Moh. Khusnuridlo Manajemen Pondok Pesantren dalam Perspektif Global. Yogyakarta: Laksbang. Mulyana, Rohmat Mengartikulasikan Nilai. Bandung: Alfabeta. Ujan, Andre Ata Multikulturalisme (Belajar Hidup Bersama Dalam Perbedaan). Jakarta: PT Malta Pritindo. Yamin, Moh Meretas Pendidikan Toleransi. Malang: Madani Media. Annual Human Rights Report of ELSAM


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