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BY: SAEFUR ROCHMAT DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY EDUCATION OF THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY A. INTRODUCTION B.

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Presentation on theme: "BY: SAEFUR ROCHMAT DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY EDUCATION OF THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY A. INTRODUCTION B."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY: SAEFUR ROCHMAT DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY EDUCATION OF THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY A. INTRODUCTION B. RELIGIOUS AND SECULAR KNOWLEDGE C. ISLAM AS THE NORM AND THE PARTICULARITY OF INDONESIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM D. CONCLUSION

2 I. INTRODUCTION THREE PARADIGMS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISLAM AND STATE: 1. THEOCRATIC PARADIGM: Islam as a Religion and State Example: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan 2. SECULAR PARADIGM: Separation of Islam and State Example: Turkey 3. FIQH PARADIGM: Mutual Legitimacy Islam and State Example: Indonesia IDEOLOGICAL : Want to establish an Ideal State Example: 1. Theocratic Paradigm 2. Secular Paradigm NON-IDEOLOGICAL : Islam and State are different Identities, but they develop mutual legitimacies Example: Fiqh Paradigm

3 1. SECULAR IDEOLOGY ---> SECULAR SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE ISLAM ===== STATE (NORM) (POLITIC =IDEOLOGY=POWER) 2. ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY --- ISLAM = STATE (POLITIC=POWER) !---> RELIGIOUS SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE 3. FIQH PARADIGM --- ISLAM STATE (NORM) (POLITIC) ----> MUTUAL LEGITIMACY

4 THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA IS ESTABLISHED BASED ON THE FIQH PARADIGM 1. ISLAM n STATE as DIFFERENT ENTITIES, but both should develop A MUTUAL LEGITIMACY. 2. Fiqh paradigm justifies the state as a tool for implementing public order 3. PUBLIC ORDER as the prerequisite for RELIGIOUS ORDER BUT: 1. This mutual legitimacy did not work well as 2. The traditionalist Muslims failed to develop cooperation with the secular nationalists because of different systems of knowledge 3. Secularists supported the Soekarno and Soeharto regimes because of ideological preference so  undemocratic regimes

5 II. WAHID TRIED TO HARMONIZE THE SECULAR SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE RELIGIOUS SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE FIQH PARADIGM = RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE SPIRITUAL KNOWLEDGE (HEART) ITS SECULAR KNOWLEDGE HAS BEEN OUT OF DATE SUCH AS THE FIQH ON THE SLAVERY SECULAR KNOWLEDGE = MODERN SCIENCES (RATIO)

6 THE NEED FOR THE FIQH-PLUS PARADIGM 1. Marginal Role of Islam in Indonesia as mismatch between Islam and modern political System 2. Secular paradigm dominated Ind political system 3. Secularists supported the undemocratic regimes of Soekarno and Soeharto because of ideological preference 3. The Failure of Secular Paradigm in Muslim countries; Indonesia, because of lack of political participation 4. The Failure of Islamic liberal paradigm such as JIL and JIMM

7 WAHID CRITICIZES IDEOLOGIES WHICH CONSIDER LIFE BASED ON THE FORMAL TRUTH OF IDEOLOGIES SO THAT FULL OF CONFLICTS : Life would be full of regulations and just based on mathematical calculation, which would cause a deficit in the meaning of life. WAHID INSISTS ON THE ROLE OF THE HEART WHICH WOULD CREATE MEANINGFUL HUMAN BEINGS : Heart ---> spirituality which take into consideration the principle of harmony WAHID BELIEVES THAT LIFE IS NOT ONLY DIRECTED BY THE CERTAINTY OF FORMAL IDEOLOGICAL TRUTHS; LIFE SHOULD TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE FEELING OF UNCERTAINTY AND OF EMPTINESS which would sharpen human beings’ sense of feeling. This would direct people to THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF GOD, THE ONLY CERTAIN AND ABSOLUTE

8 PERENNIAL PHILOSOPHY  RELIGION : 1. EXOTERIC : JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM > DOCTRINES Dialectical (law) (belief) (law+belief) 2. ESOTERIC : SPIRITUALITY > SUFISM SUFISM (INDIVIDUAL) SOCIETY (SYARI’AH) ACCEPTED SUFISM FREEDOM OF BELIEF ============== RELIGIOUS NORMATIVE HIS RATIONALITY IS TO MAKE BALANCE BETWEEN THE NORMATIVE ASPECTS OF THE RELIGION AND THE FREEDOM OF THINKING IN MATTERS OF SECULAR AFFAIRS. LIFE IS A LONG JOURNEY TO FIND THE TRUTH AS WELL AS TO IMPLEMENT IT INTO LIFE WITH PATIENCE IN THE PURSUIT OF PROGRESS (OPPOSE VIOLENCE)

9 TRUTH IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELATIONSHIP, :man informs and implements the truth in social life gradually with patience by considering people’s limitations n their toleration QUR’AN FORBIDS US TO CLAIM THE TRUTH JUST FOR OURSELVES lakum diinukum waliyadiin ‘Really, you or us, who are on the true path or on the mistaken direction, you are not responsible for our mistaken and also we are not responsible for your mistaken. Because it is the God who will collect all of us and then He will judge wisely what we have disputed. Really He is the true judge and He is the most learned.’ TWO ASPECT OF RELIGIOUS TEACHING: 1. NAZHARY (THEORETICAL):  BELIEF –INDIVIDUAL (SUFISM) 2. ‘AMALY (PRACTICAL) :  SYARI’AH --SOCIALLY GROUNDED

10 III. POLITICAL APPROACH TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISLAM AND THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA RUKUN IMAN =============RUKUN ISLAM RUKUN SOSIAL (al-Baqarah 177) ISLAM ---> DEMOCRACY <--- STATE (QUASI-NORM) SUBSTANTIVE SYARI’AH = PUBLIC ROLE OF RELIGION ISLAM -----> MUTUAL LEGITIMACY <-----STATE ! CIVIL SOCIETY : ULAMA (=ISLAM) > PRESIDENT

11 SOURCE OF HAPPINESS: 1. MATERIAL ACHIEVEMENT = STRUCTURAL 2. SPIRITUAL ACHIEVEMENT = CULTURAL 3. MATERIAL and SPIRITUAL ACHIEVEMENT = SOCIO-CULTURAL ISRA’ MI’RAJ = SPIRITUALITY (ISLAMIC VALUES) ---> SOCIAL LIFE RAHMATAN LIL ‘ALAMIN: not introduce DOCTRINES but to solve HUMAN PROBLEMS -----> cooperation MUSLIMS with NON-MUSLIMS SECULAR SCIENCES AS A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING RELIGIOUS TRUTH : DEMOCRACY THE PRINCIPLES OF SYURO’

12 POLITICAL PARADIGM: 1. IDEALISTIC = NORM/TRUTH/IDEOLOGIES 2. REALISTIC = POWER (SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST) 3. FIQH (SOCIO-CULTURAL) = DIALECTIC OF NORM and POWER SUBJECT > TRUTH SUBJECTIVISM OBJECTIVISM SOCIO-CULTURAL APPROACH : DIALECTIC OF INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY TRUTH IS A SOCIO-CULTURAL PHENOMENON, : truth is not independent but it has correlation with social and religious order TRUTH AS A NORM IS NOT ABSOLUTE AS IT IS CONTINGENT UPON THE CONTEXTS : PANCASILA STATE > SUBSTANTIVE SYARI’AH TRUTH IS HIDDEN IN THE PARTICULARITY OF CULTURE.


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