Presentation on theme: "GENDER EDUCATION IN MUSLIM CONTEXTS: BUILDING MOVEMENTS THROUGH BORDERS AND RELIGIONS Central Asia and Caucasus."— Presentation transcript:
GENDER EDUCATION IN MUSLIM CONTEXTS: BUILDING MOVEMENTS THROUGH BORDERS AND RELIGIONS Central Asia and Caucasus
STATUS OF RELIGION IN THE COUNTRIES : The constitutions state that all countries are secular, religion and states are separated from each other, the education systems are secular, all religions are equal before the law, and freedom of belief are guaranteed.
Islam in Central Asia and Caucasus The majority of Central Asians and Caucasus (mainly consider themselves to be Muslims, but the levels of pious expression differ from country to country because of historical trends and current politics. Piety also varies markedly within countries because of regional differences, gender, level of education, habitat. Muslim population in the countries: 92%- Uzbeks 93.5%-Tajiks 79.9%-Kyrgyz 94%-Azeris (70% Shia and 24% Sunni)
After the collapse of SU, Islam in this region was ill-equipped to face new ideas and new challenges.
Despite all countries have generally secular character, however, their geopolitical location – among Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, Russia and each other– make them a target of competing foreign Islamic influences, both peaceful and violent. "Some religious circles from abroad -- from Iran, from Arab countries, from Turkey -- they thought that it was their duty to teach our Azerbaijani people Islam," scholar, Nariman Qasimoglu says. "They came with their ideas, with their interpretations of religion. We started to witness new Islamic tendencies that were never practiced here."
Personal motivation rather than political ideas “Our home has never been religious,” said a young Azeri women who decided to wear headscarf. “But ever since I was a teenager, felt something was lacking, something to give me spiritual comfort. I was in a constant state of searching until I met people, who were performing Namaz. They taught me the principles of the Muslim faith, the Koran, and then I understood that this was just what I had been looking for.” Lost of trust to official clerics “There is a boom of small, non-conventional religious communities that can hardly be controlled. This radicalisation is a reaction to lack of democracy and state control”. “Our aim was to show that Islam can be something different, that Islam is not only funerals and corrupted imams asking for money. (Haji Azer Ramizoglu, a self-educated religious figure, leader of Islamic independent group, Major Reasons and Factors facilitating development of Islam
General Reasons and Factors facilitating of Re-Islamization in the region Rebuilding of national identity Globalization, Urbanization Armed conflicts and number of refugees and forced displaced people Multi ethnical population 72 years of Soviet Atheistic Ideology and Lack of basic knowledge of religion/Islam as a result Ideological vacuum after the collapse of SU Proximity of traditional Muslim countries: Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Russia (Dagestan) and penetration of Islamic radical groups Lack of clear connection between political ad religious component Socio-political and economical problems: Unemployment, low living standards and Migration Lost of trust of people to official clerics Corruption and lost belief to democracy and other type of governance Drugs
Religion is often used as the justification for women marginalising factors. Increasing number of early, cross cousin, forced and sometime "sigha “ (temporary) marriages concluded by religious law. Decreasing number of female enrollments to school, level of literacy and participation of women in public sphere Violation of women rights and increase of discrimination generally (VAW, polygamy) Impact on women and gender issues development in the country
Potential challenges concerned with integrating Gender Education Resistance from conservative men (and sometimes women) who feel threatened by change Influence of local mullahs, individuals and aksakals Issues concerned with sex, HIV/AIDs, and family planning Low quality of education system. Corruption