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Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT

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Presentation on theme: "Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT

2 Aggressive Behaviour Zinedine Zidane headbutts Marco Materazzi (2006)
Mike Tyson bites off Evander Holyfield’s ear (1997) John McEnroe swears at the umpire (1981)

3 Defining Aggression Hostile aggression Intent is to harm
Normally an emotion (anger) Instrumental aggression Means to an end

4 Assertiveness John Silva (1980)
goal directed – it aims for a particular purpose not intended to harm using only legitimate force (within the rules of the game) not breaking the agreed rules of the sport (eg. Marquis of Queensbury)

5 Studying Behaviour Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Studied saliva in dogs
FOOD + BELL  dog salivates BELL only  salivation CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Power of association

6 Behaviourism Pavlov’s ideas inspired BEHAVIOURISM
Theory that behaviour can be understood without recourse to mind Focus on observed behaviour, not invisible cognitions Very influential in middle of 20th century

7 Operant Conditioning B F Skinner (1904-90) developed Pavlov’s ideas
The Skinner Box Positive Reinforcement – introduce food Negative Reinforcement – remove electric shock Conditioned response – press lever


9 Conditioning & Aggression
PAVLOV – aggressive behaviour is associated with a cue Alcohol? Punk music? Crystal Palace fans? SKINNER – aggressive behaviour has been reinforced in the past By success? excitement? attention?

10 Social Learning In the 1970s, Albert Bandura developed these ideas further with Social Learning Theory (S.L.T.) Vicarious Learning We can learn complex behaviour from role models Especially aggression 1961 “bashing Bobo” experiment

11 Social Learning through TV
In 1965 Bandura replicated his 1961 study The role model was a boy (Rocky) who attacked Bobo on TV 3 conditions – different endings (1) Rocky is rewarded (2) Rocky is punished (3) No reaction to Rocky

12 Social Learning through TV 2
Children imitated Rocky in condition 1 and 3 Less imitation in condition 2 Bandura then rewarded children for imitating Everyone imitated  children learn from TV even when they don’t imitate!

13 Criticisms Not all aggressive behaviour is cued or reinforced
In fact, a lot of it is frowned on Parents, teachers & coaches all punish aggression Most role models are NON-aggressive A more sophisticated explanation is needed

The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Developed by John Dollard (1939) Aggression is normal response to frustration Frustration occurs when a conditioned response is withheld EG your serve goes into the net

Neal Miller (1941) was one of Dollard’s associates Found Dollard’s theory too extreme Does frustration ALWAYS produce aggression? What about cognitions? Close to achieving goal (eg falling in the final lap) Frustration is caused deliberately (eg being tripped) Frustration seems arbitrary or unfair (eg a bad line-call)

How can we MEASURE aggression to test these theories out? Donnerstein & Wilson (1976) P’s can give electric shocks to “test subjects” who make mistakes (actually confederates, faking shocks) In one condition, test subjects are rude/abusive Angry P’s give more shocks!

17 The “Instinct” Theory A different approach Aggression is innate
Freud said aggression was “inborn drive, similar to sex or hunger” Acting out aggression cleanses us – removes stress and tension Catharsis

18 The “Instinct” Theory 2 Difficult to measure instinctual aggression
(it’s unconscious) Inkblot tests? Observations? Leonard Berkowitz (1972) questions this idea Surely watching violence makes us MORE violent, not less?

19 Testing Catharsis Robert Arms et al (1979)
Some participants watch ice hockey & wrestling Control group watches swimming Compare self-reports of hostility at the end Audience of violent sport is more aggressive (aggressive emotions  not behaviour!)

20 Summing Up 1 Aggression may be a learned response
Pavlov… Skinner… Bandura Or a learned response to frustration Dollard… Miller Alternatively, it may be an instinct that needs to be expressed Freud

21 Summing Up 2 Learning theory of aggression – very useful
Suggests strategies for controlling aggression But ignores personality, disposition Ignores motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Determinist

22 Summing Up 3 Instinct theory of aggression – less useful
No clear strategies for controlling aggression (psychoanalysis?) Personality screening? Focus on motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Less determinist (willpower, self-restraint)

23 Managing Aggression 1 Raymond Novaco (1975) argues (like Freud) that aggression is useful, but often inappropriate Novaco Anger Inventory – psychometric test to measure appropriate aggression Likert scale (SA, A, NAND, D, SD) You are talking to someone and they don’t answer you You are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot

24 Managing Aggression 2 Raymond Novaco (1975) developed Anger Management
Based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Changing thinking  changed behaviour Theory: aggression is over compensation for problems in relationships  displaced onto wrong targets Solution: identify problems, teach new ways of handling them

Come up with self-statements  make them less negative Relaxation techniques Assertiveness training ROLE PLAYING Taking the role of the victim Practising different ways of handling conflict

26 Does it work? John Brunelle et al (1999)
57 male footballers (age 18-28) 3 conditions for anger management during weekly practice session: role-play (live demonstration, act out responses) anger awareness (discussion, journals) Control (no intervention) Observation & self reports over 15 matches role-play had least aggression, followed by anger awareness

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