Presentation on theme: "SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT."— Presentation transcript:
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT
Aggressive Behaviour Zinedine Zidane headbutts Marco Materazzi (2006) Mike Tyson bites off Evander Holyfields ear (1997) John McEnroe swears at the umpire (1981)
Defining Aggression Hostile aggression Intent is to harm Normally an emotion (anger) Instrumental aggression Means to an end
Assertiveness John Silva (1980) goal directed – it aims for a particular purpose not intended to harm using only legitimate force (within the rules of the game) not breaking the agreed rules of the sport (eg. Marquis of Queensbury)
Studying Behaviour Ivan Pavlov ( ) Studied saliva in dogs FOOD + BELL dog salivates BELL only salivation CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Power of association
Behaviourism Pavlovs ideas inspired BEHAVIOURISM Theory that behaviour can be understood without recourse to mind Focus on observed behaviour, not invisible cognitions Very influential in middle of 20 th century
Operant Conditioning B F Skinner ( ) developed Pavlovs ideas The Skinner Box Positive Reinforcement – introduce food Negative Reinforcement – remove electric shock Conditioned response – press lever
Conditioning & Aggression PAVLOV – aggressive behaviour is associated with a cue Alcohol? Punk music? Crystal Palace fans? SKINNER – aggressive behaviour has been reinforced in the past By success? excitement? attention?
Social Learning In the 1970s, Albert Bandura developed these ideas further with Social Learning Theory (S.L.T.) Vicarious Learning We can learn complex behaviour from role models Especially aggression 1961 bashing Bobo experiment
Social Learning through TV In 1965 Bandura replicated his 1961 study The role model was a boy (Rocky) who attacked Bobo on TV 3 conditions – different endings (1) Rocky is rewarded (2) Rocky is punished (3) No reaction to Rocky
Social Learning through TV 2 Children imitated Rocky in condition 1 and 3 Less imitation in condition 2 Bandura then rewarded children for imitating Everyone imitated children learn from TV even when they dont imitate! children learn from TV even when they dont imitate!
Criticisms Not all aggressive behaviour is cued or reinforced In fact, a lot of it is frowned on Parents, teachers & coaches all punish aggression Most role models are NON- aggressive A more sophisticated explanation is needed
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 1 The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Developed by John Dollard (1939) Aggression is normal response to frustration Frustration occurs when a conditioned response is withheld EG your serve goes into the net
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 2 Neal Miller (1941) was one of Dollards associates Found Dollards theory too extreme Does frustration ALWAYS produce aggression? What about cognitions? Close to achieving goal (eg falling in the final lap) Frustration is caused deliberately (eg being tripped) Frustration seems arbitrary or unfair (eg a bad line-call)
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 3 How can we MEASURE aggression to test these theories out? Donnerstein & Wilson (1976) Ps can give electric shocks to test subjects who make mistakes (actually confederates, faking shocks) In one condition, test subjects are rude/abusive Angry Ps give more shocks!
The Instinct Theory A different approach Aggression is innate Freud said aggression was inborn drive, similar to sex or hunger Acting out aggression cleanses us – removes stress and tension Catharsis
The Instinct Theory 2 Difficult to measure instinctual aggression (its unconscious) Inkblot tests? Observations? Leonard Berkowitz (1972) questions this idea Surely watching violence makes us MORE violent, not less?
Testing Catharsis Robert Arms et al (1979) Some participants watch ice hockey & wrestling Control group watches swimming Compare self-reports of hostility at the end Audience of violent sport is more aggressive (aggressive emotions not behaviour!)
Summing Up 1 Aggression may be a learned response Pavlov… Skinner… Bandura Or a learned response to frustration Dollard… Miller Alternatively, it may be an instinct that needs to be expressed Freud
Summing Up 2 Learning theory of aggression – very useful Suggests strategies for controlling aggression But ignores personality, disposition Ignores motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Determinist
Summing Up 3 Instinct theory of aggression – less useful No clear strategies for controlling aggression (psychoanalysis?) Personality screening? Focus on motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Less determinist (willpower, self- restraint)
Managing Aggression 1 Raymond Novaco (1975) argues (like Freud) that aggression is useful, but often inappropriate Novaco Anger Inventory – psychometric test to measure appropriate aggression Likert scale (SA, A, NAND, D, SD) You are talking to someone and they dont answer you You are talking to someone and they dont answer you You are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot You are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot
Managing Aggression 2 Raymond Novaco (1975) developed Anger Management Based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Changing thinking changed behaviour Theory: aggression is over compensation for problems in relationships displaced onto wrong targets Solution: identify problems, teach new ways of handling them
Managing Aggression 3 SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING Come up with self-statements make them less negative Relaxation techniques Assertiveness training ROLE PLAYING Taking the role of the victim Practising different ways of handling conflict
Does it work? John Brunelle et al (1999) 57 male footballers (age 18-28) 3 conditions for anger management during weekly practice session: 1.role-play (live demonstration, act out responses) 2.anger awareness (discussion, journals) 3.Control (no intervention) Observation & self reports over 15 matches role-play had least aggression, followed by anger awareness