Presentation on theme: "Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT SPORT PSYCHOLOGYSport & the IndividualAGGRESSION IN SPORT
2 Aggressive Behaviour Zinedine Zidane headbutts Marco Materazzi (2006) Mike Tyson bites off Evander Holyfield’s ear (1997)John McEnroe swears at the umpire (1981)
3 Defining Aggression Hostile aggression Intent is to harm Normally an emotion (anger)Instrumental aggressionMeans to an end
4 Assertiveness John Silva (1980) goal directed – it aims for a particular purposenot intended to harmusing only legitimate force (within the rules of the game)not breaking the agreed rules of the sport (eg. Marquis of Queensbury)
5 Studying Behaviour Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Studied saliva in dogs FOOD + BELL dog salivatesBELL only salivationCLASSICAL CONDITIONINGPower of association
6 Behaviourism Pavlov’s ideas inspired BEHAVIOURISM Theory that behaviour can be understood without recourse to mindFocus on observed behaviour, not invisible cognitionsVery influential in middle of 20th century
7 Operant Conditioning B F Skinner (1904-90) developed Pavlov’s ideas The Skinner BoxPositive Reinforcement – introduce foodNegative Reinforcement – remove electric shockConditioned response – press lever
9 Conditioning & Aggression PAVLOV – aggressive behaviour is associated with a cueAlcohol? Punk music? Crystal Palace fans?SKINNER – aggressive behaviour has been reinforced in the pastBy success? excitement? attention?
10 Social LearningIn the 1970s, Albert Bandura developed these ideas further with Social Learning Theory (S.L.T.)Vicarious LearningWe can learn complex behaviour from role modelsEspecially aggression1961 “bashing Bobo” experiment
11 Social Learning through TV In 1965 Bandura replicated his 1961 studyThe role model was a boy (Rocky) who attacked Bobo on TV3 conditions – different endings(1) Rocky is rewarded(2) Rocky is punished(3) No reaction to Rocky
12 Social Learning through TV 2 Children imitated Rocky in condition 1 and 3Less imitation in condition 2Bandura then rewarded children for imitatingEveryone imitated children learn from TV even when they don’t imitate!
13 Criticisms Not all aggressive behaviour is cued or reinforced In fact, a lot of it is frowned onParents, teachers & coaches all punish aggressionMost role models are NON-aggressiveA more sophisticated explanation is needed
14 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 1 The Frustration-Aggression HypothesisDeveloped by John Dollard (1939)Aggression is normal response to frustrationFrustration occurs when a conditioned response is withheldEG your serve goes into the net
15 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 2 Neal Miller (1941) was one of Dollard’s associatesFound Dollard’s theory too extremeDoes frustration ALWAYS produce aggression?What about cognitions?Close to achieving goal (eg falling in the final lap)Frustration is caused deliberately (eg being tripped)Frustration seems arbitrary or unfair (eg a bad line-call)
16 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 3 How can we MEASURE aggression to test these theories out?Donnerstein & Wilson (1976)P’s can give electric shocks to “test subjects” who make mistakes (actually confederates, faking shocks)In one condition, test subjects are rude/abusiveAngry P’s give more shocks!
17 The “Instinct” Theory A different approach Aggression is innate Freud said aggression was “inborn drive, similar to sex or hunger”Acting out aggression cleanses us – removes stress and tensionCatharsis
18 The “Instinct” Theory 2 Difficult to measure instinctual aggression (it’s unconscious)Inkblot tests?Observations?Leonard Berkowitz (1972) questions this ideaSurely watching violence makes us MORE violent, not less?
19 Testing Catharsis Robert Arms et al (1979) Some participants watch ice hockey & wrestlingControl group watches swimmingCompare self-reports of hostility at the endAudience of violent sport is more aggressive(aggressive emotions not behaviour!)
20 Summing Up 1 Aggression may be a learned response Pavlov… Skinner… BanduraOr a learned response to frustrationDollard… MillerAlternatively, it may be an instinct that needs to be expressedFreud
21 Summing Up 2 Learning theory of aggression – very useful Suggests strategies for controlling aggressionBut ignores personality, dispositionIgnores motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression)Determinist
22 Summing Up 3 Instinct theory of aggression – less useful No clear strategies for controlling aggression (psychoanalysis?)Personality screening?Focus on motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression)Less determinist (willpower, self-restraint)
23 Managing Aggression 1Raymond Novaco (1975) argues (like Freud) that aggression is useful, but often inappropriateNovaco Anger Inventory – psychometric test to measure appropriate aggressionLikert scale (SA, A, NAND, D, SD)You are talking to someone and they don’t answer youYou are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot
24 Managing Aggression 2 Raymond Novaco (1975) developed Anger Management Based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)Changing thinking changed behaviourTheory: aggression is over compensation for problems in relationships displaced onto wrong targetsSolution: identify problems, teach new ways of handling them
25 Managing Aggression 3 SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING Come up with self-statements make them less negativeRelaxation techniquesAssertiveness trainingROLE PLAYINGTaking the role of the victimPractising different ways of handling conflict
26 Does it work? John Brunelle et al (1999) 57 male footballers (age 18-28)3 conditions for anger management during weekly practice session:role-play (live demonstration, act out responses)anger awareness (discussion, journals)Control (no intervention)Observation & self reports over 15 matchesrole-play had least aggression, followed by anger awareness