What Sort of Psychologist Are You? The Different Approaches in Psychology
Approaches in Psychology Biological Behaviourist Social Learning Theory Cognitive Psychodynamic Humanistic BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE EACH APPROACH AND ASSOCIATED METHODS
Behaviourists All behaviour is learnt Learning depends on association Study only what they can see – outward behaviour, not thinking! Use objective, scientific methods
Key Behaviourists Ivan Pavlov John B Watson Frederick Burrhus Skinner
Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning Learning through association between stimuli that occur at the same time Studied salivation in dogs Repeatedly pairing bell and food he conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of the bell
Classical Conditioning applied to Human Behaviour Watson & Rayner conditioned a phobia of rats in Little Albert Example of generalisation Apply CC to examples such as school phobia
Frederick Burrhus Skinner Operant conditioning Learning through association between response and consequence Studied lever-pressing in rats (and dancing in pigeons etc) Used positive reinforcement (food) to strengthen the lever-pressing behaviour
Reinforcement Positive – given to strengthen the behaviour Negative – removed if behaviour is performed: clean room to avoid nagging Punishment – given when undesired behaviour is performed
Types of Reinforcement Primary – in itself rewarding eg Secondary – not in itself rewarding, but can be exchanged for a primary reinforcer eg
Behaviourist Main Method Controlled laboratory experiment (think Skinner)
Social Learning Theory (new Behaviourism) Observational learning Key terms: observation, imitation, identification, modelling, vicarious reinforcement Learning involves thinking – observed behaviours are attended to and remembered
Social Learning Theory and real life “Daniel sees his classmate rewarded for helping tidy the classroom. The next day he asks the teacher if he can tidy up after class” “Vikram watches TV super-heroes. He likes to think he can fly like superman” Q. Can you spot observation, imitation, identification, modelling and vicarious reinforcement?
Mediating Cognitive Factors All the thinking processes that come between (mediate between) stimulus and response
Social Learning Main Method Experiment with observation (think Bobo Doll)
Cognitive Psychologists Study internal mental processes eg attention and memory Use controlled experimentation Liken human information processing to computer processing Propose models to explain mental processes e.g.
Information Processing Model Stages of information processing INPUT PROCESSES STORAGE PROCESSES OUTPUT PROCESSES PERCEPTION ATTENTION MEMORY THINKING LANGUAGE MOVEMENT Backhand or forehand?
Cognitive experiment – Condition 1 Red Green Black Blue Black Green Blue Red
Cognitive experiment – Condition 2 Red Green Black Blue Black Green Blue Red
Cognitive Main Methods Controlled laboratory experiments (Think – memory experiment) Computer modelling Occasional case studies
Psychodynamic Psychologists SIGMUND FREUD (little Siggy!) Born in Vienna Trained as a doctor Founded the psychodynamic approach Invented psychoanalysis
Freud Behaviour is motivated by the unconscious Personality is tripartite (has three parts) Unconscious defence mechanisms protect us from unpleasant events, facts Development takes place in psychosexual stages Adult problems are due to repressed conflicts, fears, wishes
Defence Mechanisms Unconscious processes that protect the conscious self from unpleasant events or facts Know some examples: Repression Denial Displacement
Psychosexual stages Old Age Pensioners Like Gin
Psychodynamic Main Method Case study in a clinical setting with retrospective psychoanalysis (think Little Hans)
Humanistic Psychologists Believe we have free will Focus on the self Everyone is unique Therapy should be client centred People strive for self-actualisation We are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
Famous Humanistic names Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers Client-centred therapy – non-directive, therapist as a mirror Low self-esteem due to incongruence (gap) between perceived and ideal self Others set conditions of worth ‘I will only love you if……’ People will grow if they are given unconditional positive regard ‘I love you no matter what.….’
Abraham Maslow Studied motivation Proposed the hierarchy of needs People strive for self-actualisation Are you self-actualised? Do you ‘enjoy the means to the end’? Do you ‘appreciate basic experiences of life’ e.g. sunset?