3 A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology AGGRESSION AND CONFIDENCEWeek 3 Revision
4 Aggression“Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means.” (BULL)“Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another human being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.” (BARON)HOSTILE AGGRESSIONMain aim is to harm and inflict injury.Aggressive actions are outside the rules of the game‘Hostile destructiveness’ (PARENS)Hostile aggression involves anger.This type of aggression needs to be eliminated from sport!ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOURNo intention to harm.Strictly within the rules and spirit of the game.Robust, but functional play.Primarily focused on completing the skill successfully.‘Non-hostile self-protective mastery behaviour’ (PARENS, 1987)
5 INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION Intends to harm as a means to another goal. For example if you rugby tackle an opponent with force the intent to wind themCHANNELED AGRESSIONPositive form of aggression, divert feelings into positive actions. For example working harder
6 Antecedents of Aggression HOSTILE CROWDSFRUSTRATION CAUSED BY POOR PERFORMANCE, OPPOSITION OR REFS DECISIONS.NATURE OF THE GAMEAGGRESSIONWIDE DIVISION BETWEEN SCORESVENUE…AWAY TEAMPREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED GRUDGES OR SCORES TO SETTLEEXTRINSIC REWARDSHIGH AROUSAL LEVELS
7 Theories of Aggression INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE)- Proposed by FRUED butdeveloped but LORENZ in 1966.- ‘Aggression is genetically inheritedand that trait of violence lies within everyonedue to a basic instinct to dominate.’- ‘Death instinct’ (FREUD)- ‘Aggressive energy is constantly buildingup and needs to be released’ (LORENZ)SOCIAL LEARNING THEORYProposed by BANDURA, 1966 butdeveloped by LEAKEY.Aggression is not biologically basedbut is nurtured through environmental forces.Learned by watching and copyingrole models and it becomes anexcepted mode of behaviour if reinforced.FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS– INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE- Proposed by DOLLARD.- ‘Frustration develops when goal-directedbehaviour or NACH is blocked.’It is instinctive to fulfil the needto release frustration.- Instinct theory – aggression is the goal.- Aggression = successful = catharsis- Aggression = unsuccessful = more frustrationAGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS(BERKOWITZ, 1969)– INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE- Builds upon DOLLARD’S work.Frustration leads to an increase in arousal which,in some situations will result in aggression.Cues = baseball bats, violent acts being witnessed,nature of the game will trigger aggression ifarousal is high.Best players have the ability/temperamentto control frustration and arousal.
8 Do they have limitations? INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE)SOCIAL LEARNING THEORYFRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS– INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVEAGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS(BERKOWITZ, 1969)– INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
9 Reducing and controlling aggression Punish aggressive play.Withdraw violent players from the situation.Stress performance rather than the outcome.Emphasise non-aggressive role models.Make use of cognitive strategies to prevent aggressive play.Positively reinforce non-aggressive behaviour and negatively reinforce aggressive behaviour.Change athletes perceptions of the situation.Implement stress management techniques.Lower arousal levels
10 Review the syllabus Devise two aggression questions (3 and 4 marks) Devise an aggression essay question (14 marks)
11 Aggression – traffic light sheet Anything new that I’ve learnt
12 ConfidenceSelf confidence and self efficacy. What is the difference?
16 TaskYou are the coach of Michael Jordan. He is going through a rough patch and is showing signs of low levels of self efficacy. Using Bandura’s model how could you turn this around.Discuss in pairs and then write four paragraphs.This could be part of a 14 mark question. How? Why not the full 14 marks?
17 Social Facilitation/Inhibition SOCIAL FACILITATION: The presence of an audience positively increases arousal levels and performance is enhanced.SOCIAL INHIBITION: A negative effect on performance is experienced due to the attendance of an audience.Distraction/ Conflict Theory (Barron, 1986)Individuals can only attend to a limited amount of environmental cues.Spectators demand the same attention as other players, resulting in more competition for attentional space.Complex actions would therefore be impaired in front of large crowds.ZAJONC- The ‘mere’ presence of others is sufficient to increase the arousal level of the performer.This uses ‘drive theory’ to predict the effect of others on performance.As arousal increases (as would happen when spectators are present), there is a greater likelihood of the dominant response occurring.COTTRELL’S EVALUATION APPREHENSION- In some circumstances the audience can have a calming effect.- Increases in arousal were only present when the performer perceived that the audience was assessing performance.
19 Social Facilitation/Inhibition Homefield Advantage:Large supportive home crowds have a positive effect on performance.Most evident in indoor sports such as basketball.Crowd gets close to the action, increasing audience influence. This is called the ‘proximity effect.’Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition:Practice selective attention.Use imagery, mental rehearsal to block out audience effects.Ensure essential skills are over-learned and grooved.introduce evaluative others into practice.Raise athletes’ awareness of the zone of optimal functioning.Incorporate stress management into training.Appropriate use of attribution