Presentation on theme: "Aggression in sport. Home learning Rugby is a team game that has high psychological and physiological demands. During rugby match there is considerable."— Presentation transcript:
Aggression in sport
Home learning Rugby is a team game that has high psychological and physiological demands. During rugby match there is considerable physical contact, but incidents of aggression are relatively rare. Explain the terms hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. Explain how frustration may lead to aggression and how might a coach try to reduce the aggressive tendencies of one of their players? (14 marks)
Outcomes All will be able to define and describe, channeled/instrumental and hostile aggression All will be able to explain the difference between aggression and assertion All will be able to describe and explain the four theories of aggression and suggest strategies to control aggression Some will be able to evaluate each of the four theories
Definition Psychologists define aggression as; any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment (Baron, 1977, p. 7).
Types of aggression Hostile aggression Instrumental aggression / Channeled aggression Assertive behaviour Page 166 (167 new books) – Discuss the video.
Aggression in Sport Some assertive behaviours are tolerated by officials in sports such as the Haka - the provocative display performed by the NZ all blacks rugby team Other behaviours that are violent but are neither assertive (aim to influence/dominate) nor aggressive (intent to harm) are not tolerated e.g., bad language, equipment abuse
Types of Aggression Assertive behaviour 1. No intent to harm 2. Legitimate force 3. Unusual effort and energy expenditure Hostile aggression 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to harm 3. Unusual effort and energy expenditure Instrumental aggression 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to win 3. No anger Source: Silva (1980)
Assertive behaviour What many people call examples of good aggression (aggressively driving a golf ball or killing a shot in volleyball) are labelled assertive behaviours. Assertive behaviour is playing within the rules with high intensity, high arousal, without intention to do harm.
Aggression is not.... Doing destructive damage to an inanimate object such as a door. Unintentionally injuring another person during athletic competition. Aggressive behaviour where there is no chance for the intended victim to be injured (e.g., aggressor and victim separated by bars or team- mates).
Which of these are aggressive behaviours? 1. Question: A basketball coach breaks a chair in protesting to a disputed call? Answer: Not aggressive behaviour as violence is directed at an object and not a person. 2. Question: Alan, a hockey player, uses his stick to purposely hit his opponent in the shin in retaliation for his opponent s doing the same thing to him. Answer: Aggressive behaviour. The behaviour was aimed at injuring another player. 3. Question: A race car driver kills a fellow competitor by running into the competitors stalled car coming out of a turn. Answer: Not an aggressive action as there was no intent.
continued 4. Question: Barry knows that John is very sensitive and self-conscious about his ability to putt under pressure, so he tells John that the coach said that if does not putt better he will be replaced in the line-up. The coach never said this. Answer: Aggressive behaviour. There was deliberate intent to cause psychological damage. 5. Question: Jane bowls a fast ball that hit Tom on the leg. Answer: Not aggressive behaviour as there was no intent. A fast ball is part of the game.
Aggression Assertion Summarise the differences
THEORIES OF AGGRESSION Instinct theory Frustration – aggression hypothesis Social learning theory Aggressive cue theory
When is aggression acceptable? In 1975, an ice hockey player attacked an opponent with the butt of his stick. When the player went down bleeding, he grabbed his hair and repeatedly hit his head on the ice. He was suspended for 10 games (about 2 weeks). In court he was not convicted because fighting is an accepted part of the game, and so players must assume the risk of being injured in this way. Ice hockey players have been fined for refusing to fight!!! In basketball Rudy Tomjanovich s career was ended by an on-court assault. He was awarded $3.3 million in damages. In 1997 Latrell Sprewell punched his coach. He was banned by the NBA for 1 year and sacked by the club.
Practical application of aggression theories Watch the video clips and use each of the theories to explain Water Boys aggressive behaviour.Water Boys
Analysis of Happy Instinct theory? Frustration – aggression theory? Social Learning theory? Aggressive cue theory?
Can we identify aggressive people? People high in trait anger are more likely to become highly aroused and angry when they are losing than those low in trait anger People who have a previously watched or had aggressive behaviour positively reinforced are more likely to be aggressive than people where aggression was negatively reinforced
How can we eliminate aggression? Negative reinforcement from the media. Positive reinforcement of skilful, non-aggressive players (e.g. fair play awards). Psychological support and guidance. Professional officiating (as in the NFL). Clear differentiation of aggression and assertiveness. Severe punishments for aggressive behaviour. Governing bodies and law courts should punish offenders. Society (esp. schools) should highlight non-aggressive morals Teach athletes to control aggressive tendencies (relaxation, thought stopping etc.)
Summary Aggression is a behaviour where there is intention to harm another living being. It is fundamentally different from assertive behaviour. There are a range of theories associated with aggression. Aggressive behaviour can be reduced by teaching emotional control strategies, by punishing negative behaviour and reinforcing positive behaviour.
Prove it review All will be able to define and describe, channeled/instrumental and hostile aggression Describe an example of hostile aggression All will be able to explain the difference between aggression and assertion What is the difference between an aggressive and an assertive act?
Prove it review All will be able to describe and explain the four theories of aggression and suggest strategies to control aggression Outline the instinct theory of aggression Some will be able to evaluate each of the four theories Outline two criticisms of the frustration-aggression hypothesis