Presentation on theme: "DO NOT ALTER MARGINS! Do not change the size of periods. You all think this is not obvious. It is. Times New Roman, 12 point font, double spaced – ALWAYS!!!"— Presentation transcript:
DO NOT ALTER MARGINS! Do not change the size of periods. You all think this is not obvious. It is. Times New Roman, 12 point font, double spaced – ALWAYS!!! Delete space between paragraphs. Dont introduce new ideas in your closing.
Avoid using the synonym selection in Word. Do not start sentences with And. Do not use I or You in ANY formal paper EVER. Saying I believe or I think discredits you. You are reminding the reader that what you are saying is an opinion. Avoid contractions. Use simple language. But be formal Thesis Should include the three major points of your paper Example: The setting of the novel affects the main character because of A, B, and C.
When you quote directly from a text or allude to the events in a story (as in a brief plot summary), you should use "the literary present." We write about written works as if the events in them are happening now, even though the authors may be long dead. Quoting an essay, you would write: Annie Dillard wrote Pilgrim at Tinker Creek when she lived in Virginia's mountains. In the book's chapter, "Seeing," Annie Dillard contends that "vision... is a deliberate gift, the revelation of a dancer who for my eyes only flings away her seven veils" (17). Here, both "wrote" and "lived" are in the past tense since they refer to Dillard's life, not her writings. "Contends," however, appears in a statement about Dillard's writing, so it is in the present tense. http://writing2.richmond.edu/ writing/wweb/litpres.html
When you write about fiction, you will also want to use the present tense. At the end of Of Mice and Men, Lennie sees an enormous rabbit that chastises him, making him to think of George. Mrs. Mallard, in "The Story of an Hour," whispers "'free, free, free!'" after learning of her husband's supposed death. The above examples are a plot summary and a direct quotation, both of which use the literary present. You can remember to write about literature in the present tense because you are currently reading or thinking about it. Every time you open a book it seems as though the events are currently happening; every time you read an essay it is as though you are currently speaking to the writer. http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/ww eb/litpres.html
Titles of books, plays, or works published singularly (not anthologized) should be italicized. Hamlet Great Expectations Titles of poems, short stories, or works published in an anthology will have quotation marks around them. "Ode to a Nightingale "The Cask of Amontillado http://owl.english.purdue.edu/o wl/resource/618/03/
Could of – NO!!! Couldve Could have Than/then Conscious/Conscience/Conscientious Definitely/Defiantly Aloud/allowed Alter/altar Discreetly/Discretely Discreet – secretive, concealed from view Discrete – separated, distinct
This quote shows/The author means NO! Conclusively NO! NO! NO! Used for test results, a scientific experiment, etc. Literally
Affect – usually a verb for the writing you will be doing in this class, but can be a noun Affect – (n) feeling, affection Affect – (v) to produce an effect upon Affective – relating to, arising from, or influencing feelings or emotions; expressing emotion Effect – usually a noun for the writing you will be doing in this class, but can be a verb Effect – (n) something that inevitably follows a preceding cause or action Effect – (v) to cause to come into being Effective - producing a decided, decisive, or desired effect http://www.merriam- webster.com
Effect and affect are often confused because of their similar spelling and pronunciation. The verb affect usually has to do with pretense. The more common affect denotes having an effect or influence. The verb effect goes beyond mere influence; it refers to actual achievement of a final result. The uncommon noun affect, which has a meaning relating to psychology, is also sometimes mistakenly used for the very common effect. In ordinary use, the noun you will want is effect. http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/effect?show=0 &t=1376013718
Which of these is correct? a.Him arriving late was inconvenient. b.He arriving late was inconvenient. c.His arriving late was inconvenient. The answer is C. Arriving is a gerund, or a verbal noun.
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition. http://owl.english.purdue. edu/owl/resource/627/01/
Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.) The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.) They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed.) http://owl.english.purdue. edu/owl/resource/627/01/
They always hated my being an Independent voter. I always felt that my being different from my family challenged me.
Farther and further have been used more or less interchangeably throughout most of their history, but currently they are showing signs of diverging. A polarizing process appears to be taking place in their adjective use. Farther is taking over the meaning of distance and further the meaning of addition. http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/f arther
Usually, farther refers to physical distances. Farther south, in Central Otago, there are some even harsher mountains. Making people park a little farther away will actually increase their exposure to danger, he added. The scientist said the testing cells would be located farther from the school than initially proposed. http://grammarist.com/usage /farther-further/
Further usually refers to figurative distances. The Dollar is extending its gains against the Euro. EUR/USD fell further to 1.3430, hitting a fresh daily low. So the mechanism that was initially meant to be protective can become the source of further damage. Reliable measurements of the Suns magnetic field are only available from 1900 onwards, so researchers used computer simulations for further back in time. http://grammarist.com/usage /farther-further/
The important distinction is that lay requires a direct object and lie does not. So you lie down on the sofa (no direct object), but you lay the book down on the table (the book is the direct object). You lay something down and people lie themselves down. Chickens lay, people lie. But it gets confusing because lay is the past tense of lie.
Heres a chart to help you remember. Present TensePast TensePast Participle LieLayLain LayLaid
The past tense of lie is lay, so Last week, Kelly lay down on the floor. The dog lay in the mud after it rained yesterday. The past tense of lay is laid, so Last week, I laid the accounting report on your desk. Jamie forcefully laid her ring on the table. The past participle of lie is lain, so Liz has lain on the floor for days. The cat has lain in the mud for hours. The past participle of lay is laid, so I have laid the accounting report on your desk. Mary has forcefully laid her ring on the table.
Papers need titles. Not just the book title or the assignment. Provide a brief synopsis of what your paper is about. Centered after heading Make as descriptive as possible and include play or book title. Othello and Desdemona – NO The Lack of Love in Shakespeares Othello The Dominance of Fate as a Theme in Othello Jealousy as the Main Theme of Othello The Result of Jealousy and Insecurity in Shakespeares Othello
If you use st, rd, or th, DO NOT USE A COMMA! Incorrect: September 3 rd, 2010 Correct: September 3 rd 2010 Correct: September 3, 2010 1880s, 1900s, 1720s No apostrophe
0-9: spell out the number (zero, one, two, three) 10 +: write the number (11, 105, 500)
When discussing the author, you must use the authors last name or both the first and last names. Using the authors first name alone is incorrect. Incorrect: Daniel had many different influences when writing Robinson Crusoe. Correct: Daniel Defoe had many different influences when writing Robinson Crusoe. Correct: Defoe had many different influences when writing Robinson Crusoe. When discussing a character, you may use the first name, last name, or both. Correct: Robinson experiences many difficulties throughout the novel. Correct: Crusoe experiences many difficulties throughout the novel. Correct: Robinson Crusoe experiences many difficulties throughout the novel.
Mr. and Mrs. Bennet The Bennets did not care for Mr. Darcy. Just use an s. The Bennets house was in danger of being taken. Mr. and Mrs. Jones The Joneses did not care for Mr. Darcy. The Joneses house was in danger of being taken. The Samuelsons go through a difficult time. NOT The Samuelsons go through a difficult time.
Singular names that end in –s: use an apostrophe and an s Chriss house is blue. Suzanne Collinss book The Hunger Games was recently made into a major motion picture. Other words that end in –s: use s The drinking glass crack is noticeable.
Toward and towards are both correct and interchangeable. Many sources say the "s" is more common in Britain than in the United States. Others say towards always is wrong, so you may want to stick with toward to be on the safe side.
Between One-to-one relationships Let's keep this between you and me. Choose between green and blue. More than two items, groups, or people The differences between English, Chinese, and Arabic are significant. Among Things that aren't distinct items or individuals Taylor and Morgan are among the students featured in this months magazine. The scandal caused a division among the fans. Indicates that someone is part of a group or left out of a group He was glad to find a friend among enemies.
They have no place in formal writing and do not adequately describe what you are trying to say. Many students try to argue that clichés make the paper more interesting, that what theyre saying is not really a cliché, that the phrasing makes them sound witty, smart, etc. Theyre wrong. They should be avoided in all writing, but especially in formal papers. Starting off on the wrong foot In the long run Writing on the wall Too much of a good thing On the other hand Sweep under the rug Tip of the iceberg Downward spiral
Semicolons are used to join independent clauses in a sentence. If what comes after the semicolon is a fragment and cannot stand on its own as a sentence, YOURE USING IT INCORRECTLY!!! Example: Working mothers nationally pay an average of $400 a month for child care; this means that many women pay a significant amount of their weekly salaries to day care centers or babysitters.
Colons are used after an independent clause that precedes a list. The use of these punctuation marks often confuses students: comma, semicolon, colon, hyphen, and dash. Colons are used to separate an explanation, rule, or example from a preceding independent clause. After a sleepless night, the senator made her decision: she would not seek re-election. A way to remember which direction to move the hands of the clock when changing to or from Daylight Savings Time: spring forward, fall back.
If a person has a big decision to make, they have a lot to consider. NO! If a person has a big decision to make, he has a lot to consider. If a person has a big decision to make, he/she has a lot to consider.
A comma splice is the incorrect use of a comma to connect two independent clauses. (Recall that an independent clause is a phrase that is grammatically and conceptually complete; that is, it can stand on its own as a sentence.) To correct the comma splice, you can: replace the comma with a period, forming two sentences replace the comma with a semicolon join the two clauses with a conjunction such as "and," "because," "but," etc. Examples: I like Jamie, she is very pretty. INCORRECT I like Jamie. She is very pretty. CORRECT I like Jamie; she is very pretty. CORRECT I like Jamie, because she is very pretty. CORRECT
A participle is a verb-form that ends in -ing. It is called "dangling" when it doesn't agree with its subject. Incorrect example: While walking down the road, a tree caught Kelly's attention. The subject of the sentence is "a tree," but it is not the tree that is doing the walking, therefore the participle "walking" is dangling. Correct examples: While walking down the road, Kelly noticed a tree. A tree caught Kelly's attention as she walked down the road. Remember that not all words that end in -ing are participles (e.g. thing).
Prepositions are little words that indicate position: with, at, by, from, etc. In general, a preposition should come before the noun it modifies. Hence the name Pre"-position Incorrect example: Thats the person I must talk to. Correct example: Thats the person to whom I must talk. Winston Churchill: "This is the kind of thing up with which I will not put!"
About Behind From On Toward Above Below In On top of Under Across Beneath In front of Onto Underneath After Beside Inside Out Of Until Against Between Instead of Outside Up Along By Into Over Upon Among Down Through Without Before For Off To Of With Around During Near Since Within At Except Like Past
Who and whoever are subjective pronouns;whom and whomever are in the objective case. Examples: Who is that masked man? (Who/subject) The men, four of whom are ill, were indicted for fraud. (whom/object) Rule: Substitute he/him or she/her If it's either he or she, then it's who; if it's him or her, then it's whom.
The governess was losing her mind. The governess mental stability was questionable. Green-eyed monster Jealousy Twisting themselves Changing themselves Spreads like a cancerous tumor Spreads Bring down Othello Take down Othello Cause serious harm to Othello His world crashed down around him His life was seriously altered Got into his head Get under his skin Influence him
Your paper should read like a textbook. Think of the writing in your history textbook. Are there a lot of adjectives? Does the write use imagery? Emotion? Lots of dramatic, over the top phrasing and descriptions? NO.
This is a fantastic novel that shows the racism of the 1920s. The author does a great job of showing the characters struggle. The author amazingly displays the characters traits. We all need to take a page from Zusaks book and become good people with a purpose like Ed Kennedy.
Imagine that… Not appropriate for a formal paper, academic paper.
Random spaces. Words/phrases that dont make sense Oh hello Mr. Pip! (Dickens 230).Wemmick is overjoyed to see Pip, showing their close relationship. Is that all you ask of me Pip? Estella questioned (Dickens 127).
Do not rely on them to link your ideas; just using furthermore, additionally, etc. is not sufficient. They are an easy way out. You still need to write the paper in a way that the ideas are linked between paragraphs. Firstly, secondly, thirdly, in conclusion, all in all Primarily, ultimately, in summation, to begin, to add
Throne/thrown Implying/inferring Hamlet implies he loves Ophelia. Ophelia infers that he loves her. The person hinting at something is doing the implying. The person who is interpreting the hint is inferring. Contribute/attribute Lady Macbeth contributed to Macbeths downfall. NOT Lady Macbeth attributed to Macbeths downfall. Macbeths downfall can be directly attributed to Lady Macbeths influence.
Avoid using one in formal papers. Hung/hanged A picture is hung. A person is hanged. Prophecies/Prophesies prophecies – the plural of prophecy prophesies – a verb meaning to predict the future Pronounced as prof-e-sigh in the singular, prof-e-sighs in the plural Miss is not written with a period. Miss Havisham
5 standard areas spelling punctuation sentence structure paragraph structure syntax errors Transition use Use of quotes and cites 2 successes/2 areas of improvement Must be signed!
Avoid using them in formal papers. We are not having a conversation. I am not going to answer you. When writing something that is purely persuasive in nature, a rhetorical question can be appropriate. For example, the persuasive essay on the HSPA A rhetorical question can also be appropriate in creative writing or a personal narrative. For example, in your colleges that you will write next year