Presentation on theme: "…and how do scientists do what they do?"— Presentation transcript:
1 …and how do scientists do what they do? What is Science?…and how do scientistsdo what they do?
2 “Science” comes from the Latin word What is science?“Science” comes from the Latin wordscientiawhich means “to know.”
3 What is science?Science is an intellectual activity carried out by humansIt involves the observation of natural events and the world around us
4 What is science?Science involves studying our observations to discover patterns
5 What is science?It’s organized, so that we can make theories and laws about our observations
6 What is science? - theories Students often have definitions for the word theory that are quite different from the scientific meaning of the word.To nonscientists, the word theory often means a hunch, opinion or a guess.
7 What is science? - theories A theory in the non-scientific sense of the word does not require firm evidence to support it, nor does it require the consensus of others.In common usage it’snot unusual to hearsomeone say, “I have atheory about…”
8 What is science? – theories BUT, in SCIENCE:Scientific theories are based on observations that have been tested and supported with multiple lines of evidence.Theories are widely accepted in the scientific community and can be used to make predictions.
9 What is science? - theories A theory can also predictsuch as making predictions about our earliest ancestors based on the human fossil recordsuch as predicting things that take a long time, like the evolution of stars
10 What is science? - theories Theories in science are considered “true,” but because of the dynamic nature of science, they can change if new evidence becomes available.Such new evidence may be made possible through new technology, new ways of analyzing data, new theoretical advances, or shifts in research that examine new information and lead to a change in a theory.
11 What is science? - theories Examples of scientific theories includethe germ theory of disease,the theory of evolution,plate tectonics theory(discovered in my lifetime!),the big bang theory, andstring theory (this, too!).
12 What is science? - LawsLaws are central concepts of science – certain “pillars” that support the whole structure.There are a limited number of them, but they account for everything we see in the world around us.Laws basically tell us how the world works.There are not exceptions to scientific laws.
13 What is science? - LawsFor example: Isaac Newton showed us that one set of laws describes all motion.They are regular and predictable, a characteristic of scientific laws.Do you know them?
14 What is science? - Laws Examples of scientific laws include Newton’s laws of motionUniversal law of gravitationBoyle’s lawMendel’s laws
15 What is science? - Laws More laws… Kepler’s laws Laws of thermodynamicsLaws of electricity and magentismRelativity (just ask Einstein!)Etc. etc. etc. etc.
16 What is science? - Theories vs. Laws A law describes a phenomenon or event – it says to expect it, that it happens, but it does not explain why, like a theory does.A theory is not a “law in waiting.” Theories do not mature into laws.A theory is a well-established explanation.Laws describe what and theories explain why.
17 What is science?“Science is not a body of facts. Science is a state of mind. It is a way of viewing the world, of facing reality square on but taking nothing on its face. It is about attacking a problem with the most manicured of claws and tearing it down into sensible, edible pieces.”Natalie Angiers, The Canon
18 What is a scientist?Type “scientist” into Google Images and these are the top 5 images:What do you see?What did you draw?
19 We know a lot of scientists and NONE of them look like that?! What is a scientist?Not those guys!We know a lot of scientists and NONE of them look like that?!
20 What is a scientist?THIS is more like it! This is REAL!
21 What is a scientist? Creative Logical Asks great questions Scientists know that any new discovery they’re lucky enough to uncover will raise more questions than they started with, and they always question what they thought was correct…science is a very humbling activity.
22 How do scientists do what they do? Science is guided by the question asked.The question guides the type of investigation you’ll do.There is no ONE “scientific method” or steps that scientists follow.
23 How do scientists do what they do? Sometimes the question asked leads scientists to start with something they know and apply it to something they don’t…and
24 How do scientists do what they do? Sometimes the question asked leads scientists to an experiment.Scientists design experiments that ask only one question at a time.
25 How do scientists do what they do? Experiments involve testing cause and effect relationships between variables –They isolate a single variable and see what happens when they change only that ONE variable (while doing their very best to keep everything else in the experiment the same, or constant.)
26 How do scientists do what they do? Scientists are detectives, they ask good questions!
27 How do scientists do what they do? But they don’t only do experiments.Astronomy, field studies in nature, and paleontology are some of the examples of areas of science in which it would be difficult to do experiments. So sometimes they do research.
28 How do scientists do what they do? Scientists also ask questionsthat lead them to …Build modelsDo tests and collect dataMake observationsCollect stuff (like rocks)Use instruments to extend their sensesSometimes have good luck!
29 So how do scientists get the “right’ answer? Science is social – oddly enough, so is learning!One scientist makes a discovery…they pass the information on to their colleaguesTheir colleagues follow the procedure and try to recreate the results under the same circumstances
30 How do scientists get the “right’ answer? Scientists communicate to get consensusMeetingsPublicationsPoster sessions
31 How do scientists get the “right’ answer? Scientists publish papers that other scientists read. This is called a “peer review.”Other scientists re-create the work of the original scientist to see if they get the same answer.If other scientists agree, all is well. If others do not agree, more testing is done to check for the “right” answer.
32 How do scientists get the “right’ answer? The “right” answer is derived through consensus after following logical steps.Some theories that have strong consensus are the theory of evolution by natural selection, the theory of plate tectonics and global warming.
33 How do scientists get the “right’ answer? Sometimes, the right answer gets changed because there is new evidence or observations, butMost scientific knowledge is durable. Scientists generally modify ideas, rather than reject them outright.
34 What can’t science prove? The existence of supernatural powers or beingsThe true purpose of lifeGood vs. evil…The paranormal
35 Where is science done? Governments, such as at our national labs HospitalsUniversitiesBusinesses (think pharmaceuticals…)Industry (like computer factories…)Independent research organizations (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)Scientific associations (AAAS)Los Alamos NL
36 Where is science done? …and Outside Under the sea In classrooms OfficesLabsSpace!
37 Science careersDiscussion: What do the adults in your life do for a living? Where is science involved in their jobs?What are some science careers you know about?
38 Science is everywhere! There is science in EVERYTHING! Go ahead, name something…I bet there is science involved.