Presentation on theme: "Nature of Science August 2014 Bio X. From the Solutions Lab What do you observe? Look for patterns in the “data.” What do you infer each solution to be?"— Presentation transcript:
From the Solutions Lab What do you observe? Look for patterns in the “data.” What do you infer each solution to be? What evidence do you have for your inference? How confident are you in your answer? What would make you more sure?
How is what you were doing like science? Based on evidence/data (empirical) You made inferences from observations Your ideas are never 100% sure and could change with more data (tentative) You worked with others (collaborative) Your ideas were checked by each other (peer review) You used your background knowledge to guide your inferences (subjective)
Nature of Science 1.Empirical – based on data, testable 2.Tentativeness – subject to change, never certain, 100% 3.Observation vs. Inference – inferences make sense of observations, consistent with patterns in data 4.Subjectivity – each person’s background knowledge & scientific conceptual framework impact how they view data and even their observations 5.Collaborative – scientists work with each other, within individual labs as well as by building on each other’s findings throughout the world 6.Peer Reviewed – scientists make their findings public (presentations or publications) and findings are reviewed by other scientists Science is limited – it can only address questions about things that can be observed.
What Is Science? Latin word scientia = knowledge Search for knowledge Something is science if it can be experimentally tested over and over It is objective and unbiased
Limitations of Science Science cannot answer questions regarding judgment Questions involving vague or intangible concepts (superstitions, “bad luck”) cannot be answered by science Many times, scientific experiments don’t yield answers but lead to more questions.
Types of Science Pure science- done to learn more and gain knowledge (for the sake of knowing) –Ex. Experiment used to learn how a new drug works Applied science- puts knowledge to use –Ex. Using the drug to treat an illness
Branches of Science Biology Zoology Chemistry Physics Astronomy Botany Hydrology Physiology Biochemistry many many more!
How Do We Study Science? Make an initial observation Formulate a hypothesis Design an experiment Test hypothesis (conduct experiment) Collect Data Analyze Data Draw conclusions Communicate findings
Initial Observation Curiosity is the beginning of experimentation The scientific method generally begins with an unexplained observation about nature. Observations lead to questions
Forming A Hypothesis Possible answer to a scientific question TESTABLE! From the hypothesis made, scientists can make predictions that logically follow the hypothesis that was made
Experiment Design Plan out how you will test your hypothesis Performing the Experiment: –Designate a control group –Designate an experimental group Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Performing an Experiment Control: standard to which you measure experimental results to Independent Variable: factor that is being tested Dependent Variable: responding variable (“depends” on the independent variable) Constant: factor(s) that remain the same in an experiment.
Collecting & Analyzing Data Quantitative Data vs. Qualitative Data –Quantitative: measurements (numbers) Must determine if results are reliable (errors?) Compare results –Charts/Tables –Graphs (Bar graphs, Line graphs, Pie Charts) –Qualitative: descriptions Ex.: descriptions of behavior, color changes, etc.
Drawing Conclusions Biologists analyze their tables, graphs & charts to determine if a hypothesis is supported or not Scientists make inferences from data –Inference: conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations Scientists communicate their findings
Theory vs. Law Theory: Highly tested and confirmed idea that can explain a great amount of data. –Ex: Theory of evolution, Cell theory Law: Statement of fact that explains an action or set of actions. It is generally accepted to be true and universal –Ex: Law of gravity