Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Science as an Inquiry-Based Process The development and implementation of the research project leading to the creation of the science fair."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Science as an Inquiry-Based Process The development and implementation of the research project leading to the creation of the science fair project.
Exploring Science What is science? – “Science” comes from the Latin verb “scire” which in English means “to know” What are scientists? – Scientists’ primary goal is to know, to uncover, to discover, to find out something. What do scientists do? – Scientists wonder, explore, observe, predict, investigate, infer, reflect, and communicate what they learn. What does it mean to think like scientists? – Scientists gather observable evidence, and form that evidence they arrive at a general conclusion through logical reasoning.
What is inquiry? – Inquiry is the act of asking questions and seeking answers to those questions How is inquiry used in science? – Scientific inquiry is a special form of inquiry that asks very precise questions about the physical world and uses rigorous observations of physical phenomena to answer those questions – Inquiry reflects the curiosity about the world that is the essence of science – The specific question that scientists ask and the means they use to find the answers to those questions are specific to the field of study.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The Scientific Method Identify a problem you would like to solve Formulate a hypothesis – A hypothesis is a scientist’s best estimation, based on scientific knowledge and assumptions, of what the answer to the problem is. It must be specific and testable. Test the hypothesis – Design and experiment that proceeds to answer the specific problem.
Collect and analyze the data – Record the data you collect from your experiment – Record the data you collect from your experiment. If the data show evidence to support the hypothesis, then you accept the hypothesis. If the data show evidence that contradicts the hypothesis, then you reject the hypothesis. Note: Hypotheses can only be supported or rejected, never proven Make conclusions – At this point, you bring everything together. What does it all mean. You may identify a new problem or start all over again with the original problem. In either case, you will need to report your findings. This is where scientific writing becomes crucial
LOOKING AT THE HYPOTHESIS
Looking at the Hypothesis What is the role of the hypothesis? – Scientists usually start out with a problem or question that can be phrased as a hypothesis or series of hypotheses. – Once a hypothesis is formulated, a scientist will usually design an experiment or study to test the hypothesis – A hypothesis can only be supported or rejected, never proven. It may be distinguished from a scientific theory or a scientific law.
What is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law? Scientific theory – an explanation of why and how a specific natural phenomenon occurs. A lot of hypothesis are based on theories. In turn, theories may be redefined as anew hypotheses are tested – Examples of theories: Newton’s Theory of Gravitation, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, Mendel’s Theory of Inheritance, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Scientific Law – A logical, mathematical statement describing a consistency that applies to all members of a broad class of phenomena when specific conditions are met. – Examples of scientific laws: Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, Coulomb’s Law of electrostatic attraction, Dalton’s Law of partial pressures, Boyle’s Gas Law
HOW IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD REFLECTED IN SCIENTIFIC WRITING?
How is the Scientific Method Reflected in Scientific Writing? Parts of the Scientific Journal Article: Title: What is the article about? Abstract: Summarizes the whole article. Introduction: Establishes the area in which the research takes place, the research problem, the importance of the research, and the guiding questions or hypothesis – “Identify a problem” and “Formulate a hypothesis” Materials and Methods: Describes the research procedure – “Test the hypothesis” Results: Reports the outcomes of the research procedure – “Collect and analyze the data”
Discussion: Interprets the results, explaining them and comparing them to the results of other experiments. Conclusion: Focuses the reader on what is important about the research, its contribution to the larger area of study. References: Lists the sources used in the article