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ROCK TYPES IGNEOUSMETAMORPHICSEDIMENTARY. What is a Rock? Rocks are naturally occurring solid material made from one or more minerals. Rocks are classified.

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Presentation on theme: "ROCK TYPES IGNEOUSMETAMORPHICSEDIMENTARY. What is a Rock? Rocks are naturally occurring solid material made from one or more minerals. Rocks are classified."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROCK TYPES IGNEOUSMETAMORPHICSEDIMENTARY

2 What is a Rock? Rocks are naturally occurring solid material made from one or more minerals. Rocks are classified based on the way they were formed. Three types of Rocks: Igneous – form when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and solidifies Sedimentary – formed by particles that have been carried or deposited and then compacted and cemented together. Metamorphic – rocks formed from chemical reactions one rock forms into another kind over long periods of time.

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4 Igneous Rocks   Igneous rocks are classified according to their composition and texture.   4 basic types of textures   Glassy – black and sharp   Fine grained – interlocking pieces   Coarse grained – consist of interlocking mineral crystals   Porphyritic – made of large crystals scattered on the back of small crystals.

5 Igneous Rock Formations 1.Extrusive – rock formed from lava 2.Intrusive – rock formed when magma forces its way upward into preexisting rocks then hardens Magma – molten material below the earth’s surface. Lava – molten material above the earth’s surface.

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9 Sedimentary Rocks   Sedimentary rocks are classified according to materials from which they are made.   There are three types of sedimentary rocks

10 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks   Formed form fragments of previously existing rock   Classified according to size and shape of the fragments   Examples:   Conglomerate – made of pebbles and pebbles are smooth and rounded   Sandstone – made of small sand-size grains (very common)   Shale – made of particles smaller than sand

11 Organic Sedimentary Rocks   Formed either directly or indirectly from material that was once living   Examples:   Limestone – made primarily of mineral calcite   Chalk – form of fine-grained limestone composed of microscopic shells, small fragments of shells, and calcite crystals   Coal – made from plants that lived million of years ago.

12 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks   Formed by chemical means that do not involve living organisms   Examples   Halite and Gypsum

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15 How are Metamorphic Rocks Formed?   Formed under tremendous heat, great pressure, and chemical reactions   Metamorphism is changing one type of rock into another as a result of heat pressure and/or chemical reaction.   Types of Metamorphic Rock:   Foliated – mineral crystals are arranged in parallel layers or bands (ex. Schist, slate, and gneiss)   Nonfoliated – rocks are not banded and do not break into layers (ex. Marble and quartizite)

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17  The rock cycle is the continuous changing of rocks from one kind of rock to another over long periods of time.  Matter from the earth’s crust is changed from one form to another, but NONE is ever lost.

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