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Rocks pg 84 Pumice Scoria Pegmatite coquina Schist Gneiss.

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Presentation on theme: "Rocks pg 84 Pumice Scoria Pegmatite coquina Schist Gneiss."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rocks pg 84 Pumice Scoria Pegmatite coquina Schist Gneiss

2 Rocks A rock is a naturally occurring solid that is usually made up of one or more types of minerals. A rock is a naturally occurring solid that is usually made up of one or more types of minerals.

3 How are rock classified? Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and texture. There are three main categories of rock: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and texture. There are three main categories of rock: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

4 Rock Cycle Rocks change over time through the rock cycle. The rock cycle is the set of natural processes that form, change, break down and re-form rocks. It is a continuous process; therefore it has no beginning and no end. Rocks change over time through the rock cycle. The rock cycle is the set of natural processes that form, change, break down and re-form rocks. It is a continuous process; therefore it has no beginning and no end. Gabbro limestone

5 Few rock types do not contain any minerals at all. Few rock types do not contain any minerals at all. Ex. Obsidian which is made of natural glass, which is not a mineral because it doesn’t have a crystal structure. Ex. Obsidian which is made of natural glass, which is not a mineral because it doesn’t have a crystal structure. Ex. Coal is made up of the remains of ancient plants that have been buried and pressed into rock. Ex. Coal is made up of the remains of ancient plants that have been buried and pressed into rock. coal Obsidian

6 Rock Types Rocks are classified by how they form. Rocks are classified by how they form. The 3 types of rocks are: The 3 types of rocks are: Igneous rocks Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Metamorphic rocks

7 Igneous Rocks Page 86

8 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed from melted minerals that have cooled and hardened. Igneous rocks are formed from melted minerals that have cooled and hardened. The term “igneous” means born of fire The term “igneous” means born of fire There are two types of igneous rocks: intrusive and extrusive There are two types of igneous rocks: intrusive and extrusive

9 Intrusive Igneous Rocks Intrusive igneous rocks are formed underground from cooled magma. They have large crystals because magma deep below the surface cools slowly. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed underground from cooled magma. They have large crystals because magma deep below the surface cools slowly. Most common Intrusive Igneous= Granite Most common Intrusive Igneous= Granite

10 Granite

11 Extrusive Igneous Rocks Extrusive Igneous rock is formed from cooled lava on the Earth’s surface. They have small crystals because lava cools too quickly for larger crystals to form. Extrusive Igneous rock is formed from cooled lava on the Earth’s surface. They have small crystals because lava cools too quickly for larger crystals to form. Most common Extrusive Igneous rock= Basalt (The Hawaiian Islands are made of Basalt, resulting from volcanic eruptions.) Most common Extrusive Igneous rock= Basalt (The Hawaiian Islands are made of Basalt, resulting from volcanic eruptions.)

12 Basalt

13 Extrusive Igneous Rocks If lava cools so quickly that no crystals form you end up with a rock called obsidian, which is glassy and smooth. If lava cools so quickly that no crystals form you end up with a rock called obsidian, which is glassy and smooth. Variety of color & transparency

14 Sedimentary Rocks Page 88

15 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are formed by weathered (breaking a rock down) and eroded (moving the broken pieces) bits of sediments like sand, soil, pebbles, and the remains of dead plants and animals are deposited(where they land). As the layers settle on top of each other they get compacted and cemented (pressed and hardened) together to make a Sedimentary Rock. Sedimentary rocks are formed by weathered (breaking a rock down) and eroded (moving the broken pieces) bits of sediments like sand, soil, pebbles, and the remains of dead plants and animals are deposited(where they land). As the layers settle on top of each other they get compacted and cemented (pressed and hardened) together to make a Sedimentary Rock.

16 Three types of Sedimentary Rocks: Clastic Clastic Chemical Chemical Organic Organic

17 Clastic Rocks Clastic – form from fragments of other rocks. These are the most common types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic – form from fragments of other rocks. These are the most common types of Sedimentary Rocks Examples: Shale, Conglomerate, Sandstone Examples: Shale, Conglomerate, Sandstone Examples are: Shale, Conglomerate, Sandstone Examples are: Shale, Conglomerate, Sandstone

18 Chemical Rocks Chemical – form from chemicals dissolved in water. Chemical – form from chemicals dissolved in water. Example: Limestone, Rock Salt, Gypsum Example: Limestone, Rock Salt, Gypsum

19 Organic Rocks Organic – form from the remains of living things. Organic – form from the remains of living things. Example: Limestone is made from shells of clams and mussels that pile up on the oceanfloor Example: Limestone is made from shells of clams and mussels that pile up on the oceanfloor Did you know? Limestone makes chalk! Did you know? Limestone makes chalk!

20 Metamorphic Rocks Page 90

21 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are formed by heat and pressure from deep inside the Earth. This heat and pressure squeezes, bends or bands, and twists rock from all sides. Hot fluids move through the rock. The heat, pressure, and liquids can change the texture and look of the rock. Metamorphic rocks are formed by heat and pressure from deep inside the Earth. This heat and pressure squeezes, bends or bands, and twists rock from all sides. Hot fluids move through the rock. The heat, pressure, and liquids can change the texture and look of the rock.

22 Foliated Metamorphic Rock Foliated metamorphic rocks have visible bands. You see the layers within the rocks. Foliated metamorphic rocks have visible bands. You see the layers within the rocks. Examples are: Slate, Gneiss and Schist Examples are: Slate, Gneiss and Schist

23 Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rock Non-foliated are metamorphic rock that do NOT have visible bends or bands. Non-foliated are metamorphic rock that do NOT have visible bends or bands. Example: Marble Example: Marble

24 Metamorphic Rock Lab Materials: 3 Different Colored Starburst Procedures: Unwrap the starburst. Stack the starburst on top of each other in the open palms of your hands. Push your palms together slowly. (Do Not Twist!) Hold the candy for 3 minute. Open your hands. Observe the candy. Analysis: 1.Why did each student receive 3 different colored starburst? What does it represent? 2.What forces are being added to the candy? ____ and ____ 3. What did you observe after completing the experiment? 4. Is this an example of a foliated or nonfoliated metamorphic rock? 5. Explain how a metamorphic rock is formed.

25 How do they all fit together in the rock cycle?


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