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Intelligence and Individual Differences

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1 Intelligence and Individual Differences
What is Intelligence? Chapter 8 Intelligence and Individual Differences

2 How do we measure intelligence?
SO, what did you get on your SATs? Jane said she got a 1350…that means she’s really smart, right? Does it? Module Objectives: What is intelligence? How do we measure intelligence? Who are the children whose intelligence sets them apart from their peers?

3 How do YOU define Intelligence?
Think on Your Own… How do YOU define Intelligence?

4 Is it the ability to use reason and logic
Is it the ability to use reason and logic? Is it the ability to write and speak clearly? Is it limited to one’s performance in school? Is it behavior in social situations? How about knowing when you’re wrong? Not that simple, right? There are many psychological theories about intelligence that we will examine in this module

5 How do we know intelligence even exists?
Psychometricians specialize in measuring psychological characteristics for intelligence and personality. By using patterns of test scores, they have found evidence for general intelligence as well as for specific abilities

6 What is Intelligence? Intelligence is an inferred process that humans use to explain the different degrees of adaptive success in people’s behavior The mental abilities that enable one to adapt to, shape, or select one’s environment The ability to judge, comprehend, and reason The ability to understand and deal with people, objects, and symbols The ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Intelligence tests were developed for the practical function of selecting students for admission or placement in schools. Originally these tests were not based on any theory of intelligence. They defined intelligence as the ability to do well in school…. So IQ tests do measure intelligence. What is a better definition… these do not allow us to define intelligence any better because we still have to define judge, comprehend, think rationally, etc…

7 Spearman’s Psychometric Approach - Intelligence as a Single Trait
The measurement (metric) of individual differences in behaviors and abilities George Spearman reported findings supporting the idea that performance on any test of mental ability was based on a single general ability factor that he termed “g” Spearman also believed that performance on any test of mental ability required the use of a specific ability factor that he termed “s” Spearman based his concept of “g” on the fact that good performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks correlates consistently and positively though not perfectly.

8 g Logical Mechanical Spatial Arithmetical s s s s
According to Spearman (1904) all intelligent abilities have an area of overlap, which he called “g” for general ability. Each ability also depends partly on an “s” factor for specific ability. According to Spearman… the “g” factor is the dominant ability when doing tasks. The “s” factors are the lesser abilities. Psychologists are not in agreement on what “g” represents. The correlations between mental tasks are due in part to their sharing of the same underlying processes. But… it is also due to the fact that these processes grow together, dependent on the same factor… health, nutrition, education, etc… Arithmetical s

9 Conflicting theories have led many psychometric theorists to propose hierarchical theories of intelligence that include both general and specific components

10 Cattell’s View of Intelligence - Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities
Fluid Intelligence The ability to think on the spot and solve novel problems The ability to perceive relationships The ability to gain new types of knowledge Crystallized Intelligence Factual knowledge about the world The skills already learned and practiced Examples Arithmetic facts Knowledge of the meaning of words State capitals Fluid: Solving a new calculus problem Designing a road trip from your home town to a Tulsa Oklahoma Crystal: Writing a novel Calculating sales tax

11 Intelligence Tests and Basic Abilities
Fluid intelligence on tests is measured by: The ability to assemble novel puzzles The ability to determine the next entry in a series of numbers The ability to identify which one of four objects is related to the others Children who do well on one test of fluid intelligence usually do well on other tests of fluid intelligence They may no necessarily perform well on tests of crystallized intelligence

12 Fluid intelligence - reaches its peak before age 20 and then remains steady throughout life
Crystallized intelligence - continues to increase as long as people are active and alert What does this mean? A 20-year-old may be more successful than a 65-year-old at solving an unfamiliar problem but the 65-year-old will excel on problems in his or her area of specialization

13 Three-Stratum Theory of Intelligence - John Carroll
Hierarchical integration: Top: “g” Middle: eight moderately general abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and some similar to the seven abilities) Bottom: Specific processes General intelligence affects all of the moderately general abilities… both general and moderately general abilities affect specific processes. So, knowing someone’s general intelligence allows you to have a good prediction of general memory skills, including memory span. This hierarchical approach accounts for all the facets of intelligence -- according to the literature.

14 Carroll’s hierarchal theory is essentially a compromise between general and distinct abilities view of intelligence Some critics still find it unsatisfactory because it ignored the research and theory on cognitive development

15 Broader Theory of Intelligence
Howard Gardener proposed a theory of multiple intelligences, in which he identified 9 distinct types of intelligence. The first three intelligences are included in psychometric theories of intelligence: Linguistic intelligence Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Spatial Intelligence

16 What Do These Intelligences Examine?
Linguistics - sensitivity to the meanings and sounds of words, mastery of syntax, appreciation of the ways language can be used Logical-Mathematical - Understanding of objects and symbols and of actions that be performed on them and of the relations between these actions, ability to identify problems and seek explanations Spatial - capacity to perceive the visual world accurately, to perform transformations upon perceptions and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of physical stimuli

17 Gardener’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Gardener’s remaining 6 distinct intelligences are unique to Gardner’s theory: Musical Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential intelligence

18 What are these Intelligences?
Musical - Sensitivity to individual tones and phrases of music, an understanding of ways to combine tones and phrases into larger musical rhythms and structures, awareness of emotional aspects of music Bodily-Kinesthetic - Use of one’s body in highly skilled ways for expressive or goal-directed purposes, capacity to handle objects skillfully Interpersonal - Ability to notice and make distinctions among the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of other people and potentially to act on this knowledge Intrapersonal - access to one’s own feelings, ability to draw on one’s emotions to guide and understand one’s behavior, recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses Naturalistic -- sensitivity and understanding of plants, animals, and other aspects of nature Existential - sensitivity to issues related to the meaning of life, death, and other aspects of the human condition

19 The question arises… should we use the word intelligence to describe all valuable skills like doing calculus, speaking 6 different languages, being able to make the throw from home to second? If we do… then Gardner is correct… people do have many unrelated kinds of intelligence. Now we have changed the definition and meaning of intelligence

20 The best known is emotional intelligence
Gardener’s theory has prompted researchers to begin examining other nontraditional aspects of intelligence The best known is emotional intelligence

21 How is Intelligence Measured?

22 The first Intelligence test was created by Binet and Simon using simple tasks to distinguish children who would do well in school from those who wouldn’t Binet and Simon used Mental age to distinguish “bright” from “dull” children

23 What is IQ? Lewis Terman revised Simon and Binet’s test and published a version known as the Stanford-Binet Test in 1916. Performance was described as an intelligence quotient (IQ) which was imply the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100: IQ=MA/CA x 100

24 Stanford-Binet IQ Test
This test measures things that are necessary for school success Understanding and using language, memory, the ability to follow instructions, and computational skills Binet’s test is a set of age-graded items Binet assumed that children’s abilities increase with age These items measure the person’s “mental level” or “mental age” Adaptive Testing Determine the age level of the most advanced items that a child could consistently answer correctly Children whose mental age equal their actual or chronological age were considered to be of “regular” intelligence The test that Binet and Simon designed was later modified for English speakers (it was originally in French) by Lewis Terman and other Stanford psychologists … it was published as the Stanford-Binet test. The test was developed to identify children who had serious intellectual difficulties -- such that they would not succeed in the public school system and who should not be placed in the same classes with other students. So… this test measured things that were necessary for school success such as understanding and using language, computational skills, memory, and the ability to follow instructions. The entire test lasts somewhat more than an hour. Unlike other IQ tests… there is no imposed time limit for the current Stanford-Binet. The IQ that is determined at one age will mean the same thing at different ages. The mean IQ at each age is 100.

25 Sample Stanford-Binet Test Items
4 Name objects from memory; complete analogies (fire is hot; ice is ______); identify objects of similar shape; Answer simple questions (Why do we have schools?) 6 Define simple words; Explain differences (between a fish and a horse); identify missing parts of a picture; count out objects 8 Answer questions about a simple story; explain similarities and differences among objects; tell how to handle certain situations (finding a stray puppy) 10 Define more difficult words; Give explanations (about why people should be quiet in a library); List as many words as possible; repeat 6-digit numbers 12 Identify more difficult verbal and picture absurdities; repeat 5-digit numbers in reverse order; define abstract words (sorrow); fill in a missing word in a sentence Adult Supply several missing words for incomplete sentences; Repeat 6-digit numbers in reverse order; Create a sentence using several unrelated words; Describe similarities between concepts

26 Measuring Intelligence
At any age, children who are average will have an IQ of 100 because their mental age equals their chronological age. Roughly two-thirds of children will have an IQ score between 85 and 115 Approximately 95% will have scores between 70 and 130


28 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
This summary is used to indicate a child’s intelligence relative to others of the same age IQ tests measure an individual’s probable performance in school and similar settings An IQ test measures performance… but an IQ test does not explain performance

29 A Five-Minute IQ Test Water lilies double in area every 24 hours. At the beginning of the summer, there is one water lily on a lake. It takes 60 days for the lake to become covered with water lilies. On what day is the lake half-covered? A farmer has 17 sheep. All but 9 break through a hole in the fence and wander away. How many are left? If you have black socks and brown socks in your drawer, mixed in a ratio of 4 to 5. How many socks will you have to take out in order to have a pair of the same color? With a 7-minute hourglass, and an 11-minute hourglass, how can you time the boiling of an egg for 15-minutes? Washington is to one as Lincoln is to: Five --or-- Ten --or-- Fifteen --or-- Fifty On day 59. Remember, it doubles every day. Nine sheep. It is just a matter of careful reading. Three socks. The ratio information is irrelevant. Allow both glasses to drain simultaneously. As soon as the 7-minute glass empties, flip it over (7 minutes have expired). Then, flip it over again after the 11-minute glass empties (11 minutes have expired). Fifteen minutes will have passed when the 7-minute glass empties. The answer is five. The task here is to realize that the relation is no the sequence of their presidency but which denomination of bill upon which each face appears.

30 How did you do? On day 59. Remember, it doubles every day.
Nine sheep. It is just a matter of careful reading. Three socks. The ratio information is irrelevant. Allow both glasses to drain simultaneously. As soon as the 7-minute glass empties, flip it over (7 minutes have expired). Then, flip it over again after the 11-minute glass empties (11 minutes have expired). Fifteen minutes will have passed when the 7-minute glass empties. The answer is five. The task here is to realize that the relation is no the sequence of their presidency but which denomination of bill upon which each face appears.

31 Another test used frequently are the Wechsler Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) Used with children 6 to 16 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Used with people 17 and older The same average IQ is produced Produces the same distribution of scores as the Stanford-Binet. Scoring for the WISC: 130 and above (98%) very superior-gifted (91-97%) superior (75-90%) high average (25-74%) average 80-89 (9-24%) low average 70-79 (2-8%) borderline 69 and below (1%) mentally impaired So, a score of 130 at age 7 means that a child’s performance exceeded that of 98% of age peers, a score of 130 at age 10 means the same thing.

32 WISC-III Provides a profile of someone’s strengths and weaknesses
Each test is made of 12 parts Each part begins with the simplest questions and progresses to increasingly difficult ones Performance Scale (6 parts) Spatial and perceptual abilities Measures fluid intelligence Verbal Scale (6 parts) General knowledge of the world and skill in using language Measures crystallized intelligence

33 Measures a child's range of factual information
Verbal IQ is based on: Information Measures a child's range of factual information Example: What day of the year is Independence Day? Similarities Measures a child's ability to categorize Example: In what way are wool and cotton alike? Arithmetic Measures the ability to solve computational math problems Example: If I buy 6 cents worth of candy and give the clerk 25 cents, I would get _________ back in change? Vocabulary Measures the ability to define words Example: What does “telephone” mean? Comprehension Measures the ability to answer common sense questions Example: Why do people buy fire insurance? Digit Span Measures short-term auditory memory Other comprehension examples: What should you do if you see someone forget his book when he leaves a restaurant? What is the advantage of keeping money in a bank? Other information examples: How many wings does a bird have? What is steam made of? Other similarities examples: In what way are a lion and a tiger alike? In what way are a saw and a hammer alike?

34 Performance IQ is based on:
Coding Copying marks from a code; visual rote learning Picture Completion Telling what's missing in various pictures Example: Children are shown a picture, such as a car with no wheels, and are asked: What part of the picture is missing? Picture Arrangement Arranging pictures to tell a story

35 Block Design Object Assembly
Arranging multi-colored blocks to match printed design Example: Using the four blocks, make one just like this Object Assembly Putting puzzles together - measures nonverbal fluid reasoning Example: If these pieces are put together correctly, they will make something. Go ahead and put them together as quickly as you can.

36 The Stanford-Binet and the WISC-III cannot be used to assess infant intelligence
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are often used for infant assessment

37 Do Intelligence tests work?
To answer this question we must examine Reliability and Validity

38 How Stable is IQ? Research suggests that intelligence is relatively stable from early childhood on IQ scores tend to be fairly stable IQ test at 4 and a second at points up or down IQ test at 8 and a second at points up or down IQ test at 12 and a second at points up or down The closer together in time that IQ tests are given… the more consistent (stable) the scores. The closer together in time that IQ tests are given… the more consistent (stable) the scores. The changes that are seen here are likely due to random variation -- alertness at the time of test, his or her knowledge of the specific items on the test, etc… Scores tend to increase in children who view academic achievement as important. Scores tend to increase in children whose parents take an interest in their academic success and whose parents have firm but moderate disciplinary procedures. Scores tend to decrease in children who view academic achievement as unimportant. Scores tend to decrease in children whose parents are very stern or very lax and who show little interest in their academic success.

39 Do tests scores really measure intelligence?
This is a question of validity. Does the test measure what it claims to measure? Most test developers argue that their tests are valid measures of intelligence by showing that test scores are related to children’s grades in school

40 Factors that Influence Intelligence

41 Factors Influencing Intelligence
The Child’s Influence Genetics Genotype–Environment Interaction Gender The Immediate Environment’s Influence Family Environment School Environment The Society’s Influence Poverty Race/Ethnicity

42 Gender Boys and girls tend to be equivalent in most aspects of intelligence The average IQ scores of boys and girls is virtually identical The extremes (both low and high ends) are over- represented by boys Girls as a group: Tend to be stronger in verbal fluency, in writing, in perceptual speed (starting as early as the toddler years) Boys as a group: Tend to be stronger in visual-spatial processing, in science, and in mathematical problem solving (starting as early as age 3) Why is there a difference? Some believe that it is the result of biological differences. Some believe that it is the result of societal messages regarding gender-appropriateness of different intellectual pursuits or peer pressure.

43 Schooling Attending school makes children smarter
Children from families of low SES and those from families of high SES make comparable gains in school achievement during the school year What about during summer break? Children from families of low SES have a drop in achievement scores Children from families of high SES have achievement scores that stay constant or rise slightly During the academic year -- schools provide children of all backgrounds with the same stimulating intellectual environment. Over the summer, children from low-SES families are less likely to have the kinds of experiences that would maintain their academic achievement. Going to school more days of the year --- better for achievement scores. Attending school increases IQ scores and specific academic skills (such as increased mastery of reading and math).

44 Poverty The more years children spend in poverty, the lower their IQs tend to be Children from lower- and working-class homes average points below their middle-class age mates on IQ tests In many countries, children from wealthier homes score better on IQ test than children from poorer homes The greater the gap in wealth in a country the greater the difference in IQ scores

45 Poverty Continued… Chronic inadequate diet can disrupt brain development Chronic or short-term inadequate diet at any point in life can impair immediate intellectual functioning Reduced access to health service, poor parenting, and insufficient stimulation and emotional support can impair intellectual growth

46 Race and Ethnicity The average IQ score of Euro-American children is points higher than that of African-American children The average IQ score of Latino and American-Indian children fall somewhere in between those of Euro-American and African-American children The average IQ score of Asian-American children tend to be higher than any other group in the US Mean African-American score: 90 Mean Euro-American score: 105 Group differences in IQ scores refer to statistical averages not to any individual’s score. In fact… millions of African-American children in the US have higher IQ scores than Euro-American children. There is far more variability within each racial group than between them. So, these averages tell us nothing about the individual person.

47 Race and Ethnicity Continued…
American-Indian children: Better on the performance part than the verbal part of an IQ test Latino children: Asian-American children: African-American children: Better on the verbal part than the performance part of an IQ test Overall - differences in IQ scores of children from different racial and ethnic groups describes children’s performance ONLY in the environments in which the children live Why? Neurological factors, communication style within the culture, cultural values, and plenty of other factors These findings do not indicate potential, nor do they tell us what these children would do if they live someplace else. The current group differences in IQ are due to environmental differences -- as discrimination and inequality decrease -- IQ differences decrease

48 Culture-Fair Intelligence Tests
Raven’s Progressive Matrices A “culture-fair” or culture-reduced test that would make minimal use of language and not ask for any specific facts These matrices progress from easy to difficult items -- measures abstract reasoning Even on culture-fair tests, Euro-American and African-American children still differ One reason - culture can influence a child’s familiarity with the entire testing situation

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