Presentation on theme: "Intelligence and Individual Differences"— Presentation transcript:
1Intelligence and Individual Differences What is Intelligence?Chapter 8Intelligence and Individual Differences
2How do we measure intelligence? SO, what did you get on your SATs? Jane said she got a 1350…that means she’s really smart, right? Does it?Module Objectives:What is intelligence?How do we measure intelligence?Who are the children whose intelligence sets them apart from their peers?
3How do YOU define Intelligence? Think on Your Own…How do YOU define Intelligence?
4Is it the ability to use reason and logic Is it the ability to use reason and logic? Is it the ability to write and speak clearly? Is it limited to one’s performance in school? Is it behavior in social situations? How about knowing when you’re wrong?Not that simple, right?There are many psychological theories about intelligence that we will examine in this module
5How do we know intelligence even exists? Psychometricians specialize in measuring psychological characteristics for intelligence and personality. By using patterns of test scores, they have found evidence for general intelligence as well as for specific abilities
6What is Intelligence?Intelligence is an inferred process that humans use to explain the different degrees of adaptive success in people’s behaviorThe mental abilities that enable one to adapt to, shape, or select one’s environmentThe ability to judge, comprehend, and reasonThe ability to understand and deal with people, objects, and symbolsThe ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environmentIntelligence tests were developed for the practical function of selecting students for admission or placement in schools. Originally these tests were not based on any theory of intelligence. They defined intelligence as the ability to do well in school…. So IQ tests do measure intelligence.What is a better definition… these do not allow us to define intelligence any better because we still have to define judge, comprehend, think rationally, etc…
7Spearman’s Psychometric Approach - Intelligence as a Single Trait The measurement (metric) of individual differences in behaviors and abilitiesGeorge Spearman reported findings supporting the idea that performance on any test of mental ability was based on a single general ability factor that he termed “g”Spearman also believed that performance on any test of mental ability required the use of a specific ability factor that he termed “s”Spearman based his concept of “g” on the fact that good performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks correlates consistently and positively though not perfectly.
8g Logical Mechanical Spatial Arithmetical s s s s According to Spearman (1904) all intelligent abilities have an area of overlap, which he called “g” for general ability. Each ability also depends partly on an “s” factor for specific ability. According to Spearman… the “g” factor is the dominant ability when doing tasks. The “s” factors are the lesser abilities.Psychologists are not in agreement on what “g” represents.The correlations between mental tasks are due in part to their sharing of the same underlying processes. But… it is also due to the fact that these processes grow together, dependent on the same factor… health, nutrition, education, etc…Arithmeticals
9Conflicting theories have led many psychometric theorists to propose hierarchical theories of intelligence that include both general and specific components
10Cattell’s View of Intelligence - Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Fluid IntelligenceThe ability to think on the spot and solve novel problemsThe ability to perceive relationshipsThe ability to gain new types of knowledgeCrystallized IntelligenceFactual knowledge about the worldThe skills already learned and practicedExamplesArithmetic factsKnowledge of the meaning of wordsState capitalsFluid:Solving a new calculus problemDesigning a road trip from your home town to a Tulsa OklahomaCrystal:Writing a novelCalculating sales tax
11Intelligence Tests and Basic Abilities Fluid intelligence on tests is measured by:The ability to assemble novel puzzlesThe ability to determine the next entry in a series of numbersThe ability to identify which one of four objects is related to the othersChildren who do well on one test of fluid intelligence usually do well on other tests of fluid intelligenceThey may no necessarily perform well on tests of crystallized intelligence
12Fluid intelligence - reaches its peak before age 20 and then remains steady throughout life Crystallized intelligence - continues to increase as long as people are active and alertWhat does this mean?A 20-year-old may be more successful than a 65-year-old at solving an unfamiliar problem but the 65-year-old will excel on problems in his or her area of specialization
13Three-Stratum Theory of Intelligence - John Carroll Hierarchical integration:Top: “g”Middle: eight moderately general abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and some similar to the seven abilities)Bottom: Specific processesGeneral intelligence affects all of the moderately general abilities… both general and moderately general abilities affect specific processes. So, knowing someone’s general intelligence allows you to have a good prediction of general memory skills, including memory span.This hierarchical approach accounts for all the facets of intelligence -- according to the literature.
14Carroll’s hierarchal theory is essentially a compromise between general and distinct abilities view of intelligenceSome critics still find it unsatisfactory because it ignored the research and theory on cognitive development
15Broader Theory of Intelligence Howard Gardener proposed a theory of multiple intelligences, in which he identified 9 distinct types of intelligence.The first three intelligences are included in psychometric theories of intelligence:Linguistic intelligenceLogical-Mathematical IntelligenceSpatial Intelligence
16What Do These Intelligences Examine? Linguistics - sensitivity to the meanings and sounds of words, mastery of syntax, appreciation of the ways language can be usedLogical-Mathematical - Understanding of objects and symbols and of actions that be performed on them and of the relations between these actions, ability to identify problems and seek explanationsSpatial - capacity to perceive the visual world accurately, to perform transformations upon perceptions and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of physical stimuli
17Gardener’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence Gardener’s remaining 6 distinct intelligences are unique to Gardner’s theory:MusicalBodily-kinestheticInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalisticExistential intelligence
18What are these Intelligences? Musical - Sensitivity to individual tones and phrases of music, an understanding of ways to combine tones and phrases into larger musical rhythms and structures, awareness of emotional aspects of musicBodily-Kinesthetic - Use of one’s body in highly skilled ways for expressive or goal-directed purposes, capacity to handle objects skillfullyInterpersonal - Ability to notice and make distinctions among the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of other people and potentially to act on this knowledgeIntrapersonal - access to one’s own feelings, ability to draw on one’s emotions to guide and understand one’s behavior, recognition of personal strengths and weaknessesNaturalistic -- sensitivity and understanding of plants, animals, and other aspects of natureExistential - sensitivity to issues related to the meaning of life, death, and other aspects of the human condition
19The question arises… should we use the word intelligence to describe all valuable skills like doing calculus, speaking 6 different languages, being able to make the throw from home to second?If we do… then Gardner is correct… people do have many unrelated kinds of intelligence. Now we have changed the definition and meaning of intelligence
20The best known is emotional intelligence Gardener’s theory has prompted researchers to begin examining other nontraditional aspects of intelligenceThe best known is emotional intelligence
22The first Intelligence test was created by Binet and Simon using simple tasks to distinguish children who would do well in school from those who wouldn’tBinet and Simon used Mental age to distinguish “bright” from “dull” children
23What is IQ?Lewis Terman revised Simon and Binet’s test and published a version known as the Stanford-Binet Test in 1916.Performance was described as an intelligence quotient (IQ) which was imply the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100:IQ=MA/CA x 100
24Stanford-Binet IQ Test This test measures things that are necessary for school successUnderstanding and using language, memory, the ability to follow instructions, and computational skillsBinet’s test is a set of age-graded itemsBinet assumed that children’s abilities increase with ageThese items measure the person’s “mental level” or “mental age”Adaptive TestingDetermine the age level of the most advanced items that a child could consistently answer correctlyChildren whose mental age equal their actual or chronological age were considered to be of “regular” intelligenceThe test that Binet and Simon designed was later modified for English speakers (it was originally in French) by Lewis Terman and other Stanford psychologists … it was published as the Stanford-Binet test.The test was developed to identify children who had serious intellectual difficulties -- such that they would not succeed in the public school system and who should not be placed in the same classes with other students. So… this test measured things that were necessary for school success such as understanding and using language, computational skills, memory, and the ability to follow instructions.The entire test lasts somewhat more than an hour.Unlike other IQ tests… there is no imposed time limit for the current Stanford-Binet.The IQ that is determined at one age will mean the same thing at different ages. The mean IQ at each age is 100.
25Sample Stanford-Binet Test Items 4Name objects from memory; complete analogies (fire is hot; ice is ______); identify objects of similar shape; Answer simple questions (Why do we have schools?)6Define simple words; Explain differences (between a fish and a horse); identify missing parts of a picture; count out objects8Answer questions about a simple story; explain similarities and differences among objects; tell how to handle certain situations (finding a stray puppy)10Define more difficult words; Give explanations (about why people should be quiet in a library); List as many words as possible; repeat 6-digit numbers12Identify more difficult verbal and picture absurdities; repeat 5-digit numbers in reverse order; define abstract words (sorrow); fill in a missing word in a sentenceAdultSupply several missing words for incomplete sentences; Repeat 6-digit numbers in reverse order; Create a sentence using several unrelated words; Describe similarities between concepts
26Measuring Intelligence At any age, children who are average will have an IQ of 100 because their mental age equals their chronological age.Roughly two-thirds of children will have an IQ score between 85 and 115Approximately 95% will have scores between 70 and 130
28Intelligence Quotient (IQ) This summary is used to indicate a child’s intelligence relative to others of the same ageIQ tests measure an individual’s probable performance in school and similar settingsAn IQ test measures performance… but an IQ test does not explain performance
29A Five-Minute IQ TestWater lilies double in area every 24 hours. At the beginning of the summer, there is one water lily on a lake. It takes 60 days for the lake to become covered with water lilies. On what day is the lake half-covered?A farmer has 17 sheep. All but 9 break through a hole in the fence and wander away. How many are left?If you have black socks and brown socks in your drawer, mixed in a ratio of 4 to 5. How many socks will you have to take out in order to have a pair of the same color?With a 7-minute hourglass, and an 11-minute hourglass, how can you time the boiling of an egg for 15-minutes?Washington is to one as Lincoln is to:Five --or-- Ten --or-- Fifteen --or-- FiftyOn day 59. Remember, it doubles every day.Nine sheep. It is just a matter of careful reading.Three socks. The ratio information is irrelevant.Allow both glasses to drain simultaneously. As soon as the 7-minute glass empties, flip it over (7 minutes have expired). Then, flip it over again after the 11-minute glass empties (11 minutes have expired). Fifteen minutes will have passed when the 7-minute glass empties.The answer is five. The task here is to realize that the relation is no the sequence of their presidency but which denomination of bill upon which each face appears.
30How did you do? On day 59. Remember, it doubles every day. Nine sheep. It is just a matter of careful reading.Three socks. The ratio information is irrelevant.Allow both glasses to drain simultaneously. As soon as the 7-minute glass empties, flip it over (7 minutes have expired). Then, flip it over again after the 11-minute glass empties (11 minutes have expired). Fifteen minutes will have passed when the 7-minute glass empties.The answer is five. The task here is to realize that the relation is no the sequence of their presidency but which denomination of bill upon which each face appears.
31Another test used frequently are the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III)Used with children 6 to 16Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III)Used with people 17 and olderThe same average IQ is producedProduces the same distribution of scores as the Stanford-Binet.Scoring for the WISC:130 and above (98%) very superior-gifted(91-97%) superior(75-90%) high average(25-74%) average80-89 (9-24%) low average70-79 (2-8%) borderline69 and below (1%) mentally impairedSo, a score of 130 at age 7 means that a child’s performance exceeded that of 98% of age peers, a score of 130 at age 10 means the same thing.
32WISC-III Provides a profile of someone’s strengths and weaknesses Each test is made of 12 partsEach part begins with the simplest questions and progresses to increasingly difficult onesPerformance Scale (6 parts)Spatial and perceptual abilitiesMeasures fluid intelligenceVerbal Scale (6 parts)General knowledge of the world and skill in using languageMeasures crystallized intelligence
33Measures a child's range of factual information Verbal IQ is based on:InformationMeasures a child's range of factual informationExample: What day of the year is Independence Day?SimilaritiesMeasures a child's ability to categorizeExample: In what way are wool and cotton alike?ArithmeticMeasures the ability to solve computational math problemsExample: If I buy 6 cents worth of candy and give the clerk 25 cents, I would get _________ back in change?VocabularyMeasures the ability to define wordsExample: What does “telephone” mean?ComprehensionMeasures the ability to answer common sense questionsExample: Why do people buy fire insurance?Digit SpanMeasures short-term auditory memoryOther comprehension examples:What should you do if you see someone forget his book when he leaves a restaurant?What is the advantage of keeping money in a bank?Other information examples:How many wings does a bird have?What is steam made of?Other similarities examples:In what way are a lion and a tiger alike?In what way are a saw and a hammer alike?
34Performance IQ is based on: CodingCopying marks from a code; visual rote learningPicture CompletionTelling what's missing in various picturesExample: Children are shown a picture, such as a car with no wheels, and are asked: What part of the picture is missing?Picture ArrangementArranging pictures to tell a story
35Block Design Object Assembly Arranging multi-colored blocks to match printed designExample: Using the four blocks, make one just like thisObject AssemblyPutting puzzles together - measures nonverbal fluid reasoningExample: If these pieces are put together correctly, they will make something. Go ahead and put them together as quickly as you can.
36The Stanford-Binet and the WISC-III cannot be used to assess infant intelligence The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are often used for infant assessment
37Do Intelligence tests work? To answer this question we must examine Reliability and Validity
38How Stable is IQ?Research suggests that intelligence is relatively stable from early childhood onIQ scores tend to be fairly stableIQ test at 4 and a second at points up or downIQ test at 8 and a second at points up or downIQ test at 12 and a second at points up or downThe closer together in time that IQ tests are given… the more consistent (stable) the scores.The closer together in time that IQ tests are given… the more consistent (stable) the scores.The changes that are seen here are likely due to random variation -- alertness at the time of test, his or her knowledge of the specific items on the test, etc…Scores tend to increase in children who view academic achievement as important.Scores tend to increase in children whose parents take an interest in their academic success and whose parents have firm but moderate disciplinary procedures.Scores tend to decrease in children who view academic achievement as unimportant.Scores tend to decrease in children whose parents are very stern or very lax and who show little interest in their academic success.
39Do tests scores really measure intelligence? This is a question of validity. Does the test measure what it claims to measure?Most test developers argue that their tests are valid measures of intelligence by showing that test scores are related to children’s grades in school
42GenderBoys and girls tend to be equivalent in most aspects of intelligenceThe average IQ scores of boys and girls is virtually identicalThe extremes (both low and high ends) are over- represented by boysGirls as a group:Tend to be stronger in verbal fluency, in writing, in perceptual speed (starting as early as the toddler years)Boys as a group:Tend to be stronger in visual-spatial processing, in science, and in mathematical problem solving (starting as early as age 3)Why is there a difference?Some believe that it is the result of biological differences.Some believe that it is the result of societal messages regarding gender-appropriateness of different intellectual pursuits or peer pressure.
43Schooling Attending school makes children smarter Children from families of low SES and those from families of high SES make comparable gains in school achievement during the school yearWhat about during summer break?Children from families of low SES have a drop in achievement scoresChildren from families of high SES have achievement scores that stay constant or rise slightlyDuring the academic year -- schools provide children of all backgrounds with the same stimulating intellectual environment. Over the summer, children from low-SES families are less likely to have the kinds of experiences that would maintain their academic achievement.Going to school more days of the year --- better for achievement scores. Attending school increases IQ scores and specific academic skills (such as increased mastery of reading and math).
44PovertyThe more years children spend in poverty, the lower their IQs tend to beChildren from lower- and working-class homes average points below their middle-class age mates on IQ testsIn many countries, children from wealthier homes score better on IQ test than children from poorer homesThe greater the gap in wealth in a country the greater the difference in IQ scores
45Poverty Continued…Chronic inadequate diet can disrupt brain developmentChronic or short-term inadequate diet at any point in life can impair immediate intellectual functioningReduced access to health service, poor parenting, and insufficient stimulation and emotional support can impair intellectual growth
46Race and EthnicityThe average IQ score of Euro-American children is points higher than that of African-American childrenThe average IQ score of Latino and American-Indian children fall somewhere in between those of Euro-American and African-American childrenThe average IQ score of Asian-American children tend to be higher than any other group in the USMean African-American score: 90Mean Euro-American score: 105Group differences in IQ scores refer to statistical averages not to any individual’s score.In fact… millions of African-American children in the US have higher IQ scores than Euro-American children.There is far more variability within each racial group than between them. So, these averages tell us nothing about the individual person.
47Race and Ethnicity Continued… American-Indian children:Better on the performance part than the verbal part of an IQ testLatino children:Asian-American children:African-American children:Better on the verbal part than the performance part of an IQ testOverall - differences in IQ scores of children from different racial and ethnic groups describes children’s performance ONLY in the environments in which the children liveWhy? Neurological factors, communication style within the culture, cultural values, and plenty of other factorsThese findings do not indicate potential, nor do they tell us what these children would do if they live someplace else. The current group differences in IQ are due to environmental differences -- as discrimination and inequality decrease -- IQ differences decrease
48Culture-Fair Intelligence Tests Raven’s Progressive MatricesA “culture-fair” or culture-reduced test that would make minimal use of language and not ask for any specific factsThese matrices progress from easy to difficult items -- measures abstract reasoningEven on culture-fair tests, Euro-American and African-American children still differOne reason - culture can influence a child’s familiarity with the entire testing situation