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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 9 (Part II) Intelligence

2 What is Intelligence? Intelligence mental abilities
involves ability to: learn from experience solve problems reason effectively meet challenges and achieve goals adapt to new situations

3 Assessing Intelligence
Aptitude Test assess a person’s capacity to learn Achievement Test assess what a person has learned

4 Origins of Intelligence
Mental Age devised by Binet (Paris - early 1900s) chronological age that typically corresponds to a given level of performance child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

5 Origins of Intelligence
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test revised by Lewis Terman (Stanford University)

6 Origins of Intelligence
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) originally: ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 IQ = ma/ca x 100) now: computerized data base - average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

7 Are There Multiple Intelligences?
Emotional Intelligence perceiving emotions recognition of emotions in faces, music, stories understanding emotions important for predicting emotions managing emotions know how & when to express them in various situations

8 Theories of Intelligence
One General Intelligence? Spearman – believed we have one general intelligence one factor that underlies our mental abilities OR Multiple Intelligences? Gardner’s Eight Intelligences Sternberg’s triarchic theory

9 Gardner’s Eight Intelligences
Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial (“picture smart”) Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal (self) Interpersonal (other people) Naturalist (“nature smart”)

10 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Analytical Intelligence academic problem-solving assessed by intelligence tests with questions that have a single correct answer Creative Intelligence adapt to new situations develop new ideas Practical Intelligence required for everyday tasks problems that have multiple solutions

11 Assessing Intelligence
Wechsler Intelligence Scale widely used intelligence test Adults age 16+ (WAIS) Children age 6-16 (WISC) IQ score & 4 index scores verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning (nonverbal) working memory processing speed

12 Perceptual reasoning example

13 Perceptual Reasoning Example

14 Assessing Intelligence
Standardization testing a group of people to see the scores that are typically obtained Normal Curve most scores fall near the average fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Malcolm Gladwell book – Outliers factors that go into extraordinary achievement

15 The Normal Curve Number of scores 55 70 85 100 115 130 145
Ninety-five percent of all people fall within 30 points of 100 Number of scores Wechsler intelligence score Sixty-eight percent of people score within 15 points above or below 100

16 Assessing Intelligence
Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on two halves of the test alternate forms of the test retesting the same individual Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to

17 Assessing Intelligence
Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest driving test that samples driving Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

18 Intelligence Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability)
a condition of limited mental ability indicated by intelligence scores below 70 varies from mild to profound Down Syndrome retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in genetic make-up

19 Intelligence Moderate May progress to second-grade level. academically. Adults may contribute to their own support by labor in sheltered workshops. Degrees of Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability - ID) Level Typical Intelligence Scores Percentage of those with ID Adaptation to Demands of Life Mild % May learn academic skills up to sixth-grade level. Adults may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills. Severe May learn to talk and perform simple work tasks under close supervision but are generally unable to profit from vocational training. Profound below Require constant aid and supervision.

20 Savant Syndrome a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an amazing specific skill computation drawing

21 Genetic Influences Similarity of intelligence scores (correlation) Identical twins reared together apart Fraternal Siblings Unrelated individuals The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores

22 Genetic Influences Heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes if variation in environments decreases (become more alike)  heritability (variation explained by genetics) will increase

23 Genetic Influences 0.35 0.30 Child-parent 0.25 correlation in
0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 3 years years Child-parent correlation in verbal ability scores Children and their birth parents Adopted children and their birth parents and their adoptive

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