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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Origins of Intelligence Testing  Intelligence Test  a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

3 Origins of Intelligence Testing  Mental Age  a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet  chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance  child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

4 Origins of Intelligence Testing  Stanford-Binet  the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test  revised by Terman at Stanford University

5 Origins of Intelligence Testing  Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100  IQ = ma/ca x 100)  on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

6 What is Intelligence?  Intelligence  ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

7 What is Intelligence?  Factor Analysis  statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test  used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score  General Intelligence (g)  factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities  measured by every task on an intelligence test

8 Are There Multiple Intelligences?  Savant Syndrome  condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill  computation  drawing

9 Are There Multiple Intelligences?  Social Intelligence  the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully  Emotional Intelligence  ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

10 Intelligence and Creativity  Creativity  the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas  expertise  imaginative thinking skills  venturesome personality  intrinsic motivation  creative environment

11 Brain Function and Intelligence  People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?

12 Assessing Intelligence  Aptitude Test  a test designed to predict a person’s future performance  aptitude is the capacity to learn  Achievement Test  a test designed to assess what a person has learned

13 Assessing Intelligence  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)  most widely used intelligence test  subtests  verbal  performance (nonverbal)

14 Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution

15 Assessing Intelligence  Standardization  defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”  Normal Curve  the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes  most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

16 The Normal Curve

17 Getting Smarter?

18 Assessing Intelligence  Reliability  the extent to which a test yields consistent results  assessed by consistency of scores on:  two halves of the test  alternate forms of the test  retesting  Validity  the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

19 Assessing Intelligence  Content Validity  the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest  driving test that samples driving tasks  Criterion  behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict  the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

20 Assessing Intelligence  Predictive Validity  success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict  assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior  also called criterion-related validity

21 Assessing Intelligence  As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes Greater correlation over broad range of body weights Little corre- lation within restricted range Football linemen’s success Body weight in pounds

22 The Dynamics of Intelligence  Mental Retardation  a condition of limited mental ability  indicated by an intelligence score below 70  produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life  varies from mild to profound  Down Syndrome  retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup

23 The Dynamics of Intelligence

24 Genetic Influences  The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores

25 Genetic Influences  Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  variability depends on range of populations and environments studied

26 Genetic Influences

27 Environmental Influences  The Schooling Effect

28 Group Differences  Group differences and environmental impact Variation within group Difference within group Poor soilFertile soil Seeds

29 Group Differences  The Mental Rotation Test Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? StandardResponses

30 Group Differences  Stereotype Threat  A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype


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