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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Origins of Intelligence Testing
a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

3 Origins of Intelligence Testing
Mental Age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

4 Origins of Intelligence Testing
Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test revised by Terman at Stanford University

5 Origins of Intelligence Testing
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 IQ = ma/ca x 100) on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

6 What is Intelligence? Intelligence
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

7 What is Intelligence? Factor Analysis General Intelligence (g)
statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score General Intelligence (g) factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities measured by every task on an intelligence test

8 Are There Multiple Intelligences?
Savant Syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill computation drawing

9 Are There Multiple Intelligences?
Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

10 Intelligence and Creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas expertise imaginative thinking skills venturesome personality intrinsic motivation creative environment

11 Brain Function and Intelligence
People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?

12 Assessing Intelligence
Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a person’s future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned

13 Assessing Intelligence
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test subtests verbal performance (nonverbal)

14 Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS
From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution

15 Assessing Intelligence
Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

16 The Normal Curve

17 Getting Smarter?

18 Assessing Intelligence
Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on: two halves of the test alternate forms of the test retesting Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

19 Assessing Intelligence
Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest driving test that samples driving tasks Criterion behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

20 Assessing Intelligence
Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion-related validity

21 Assessing Intelligence
Greater correlation over broad range of body weights 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Little corre- lation within restricted range Football linemen’s success Body weight in pounds As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes

22 The Dynamics of Intelligence
Mental Retardation a condition of limited mental ability indicated by an intelligence score below 70 produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life varies from mild to profound Down Syndrome retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup

23 The Dynamics of Intelligence

24 Genetic Influences The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores

25 Genetic Influences Heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes variability depends on range of populations and environments studied

26 Genetic Influences

27 Environmental Influences
The Schooling Effect

28 Variation within group Difference within group
Group Differences Group differences and environmental impact Variation within group Difference within group Poor soil Fertile soil Seeds

29 Group Differences The Mental Rotation Test Standard Responses
Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? Standard Responses

30 Group Differences Stereotype Threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

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