4Measuring Intelligence Intelligence Tests: tests for assessing a person’s mental abilities and comparing them with the abilities of other people, by means of numerical scores.
5Origins of Intelligence Tests Alfred Binet, a french psychologist, is most often considered to be the pioneer of the intelligence testing movement.What was Binet’s purpose for developing his tests?Assumed children follow the same course of intellectual development, but some development faster and slower then others
6Alfred Binet and Intelligence Tests Binet’s looked to identify a child’s:Mental Age: chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.A child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.Binet did not believe his test measured inborn intelligence.Tests predicted how well the children handle schoolworkPurpose was to ID children who need help
7Lewis Terman and Intelligence Tests Lewis Terman, an American psychologist at Stanford, adapted Binet’s test in an attempt to measure what he thought was inherited intelligence.Stanford-Binet: refers to the widely used revision of Binet’s original intelligence test.
8IQ TestsIn an attempt to measure inherited intelligence, tests developed the “IQ.”IQ: (intelligence quotient): defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100IQ = ma/ca x 100)Not used today; not accurate for adultson contemporary tests it is the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
10The Normal Curve Number of scores 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 Ninety-five percentof all people fallwithin 30 pointsof 100Number of scoresWechsler intelligence scoreSixty-eight percentof people scorewithin 15 pointsabove or below 100
11“Intelligence” is Hard to Define Intelligence is often defined as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.Intelligence is not a “thing” it is an abstract concept…an IQ is simply a score on an intelligence test.What types of things are usually NOT measured on an IQ test that might illustrate “intelligence?”
12Is Intelligence a Singular Ability? To measure general ability within specific mental abilities a statistical method is used called:Factor Analysis: used to identify clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total.Ex: People who do well on vocabulary items also usually do well on paragraph comprehension…which are both related to the verbal intelligence factor.
13Charles Spearman and The G-Factor General intelligence (g): Spearman’s belief that there was a factor that underlied specific mental abilities and was therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.Specific intelligences tended to be positively correlated.
14Broadening Theory of Intelligence Savant Syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill.Many are autistic4/5 are maleHow does this relate to the g-factor?
15Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences From a biological point of view, Gardner has noted that brain damage often may diminish some abilities but not others.Gardner argues humans do not have an intelligence but instead multiple intelligences which are relatively independent of the others.
16Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Gardner argues there are 8 intelligences:Verbal Linguistic 5. Auditory-musical2. Logical-mathematical 6. InterpersonalVisual Spatial IntrapersonalBody-kinestheticWhat do traditional IQ tests measure?
17Robert Sternberg and “Successful Intelligence” Sternberg looked to overcome the fact that although IQ tests predicted school tests relatively well, they did less well predicting vocational success.Sternberg’s 3 Aspects of Intelligence:1. Analytical Intelligence: (academic problem solving)2. Creative Intelligence: (reacting to new situations and creating new ideas)3. Practical Intelligence: (often required for everyday tasks, “common sense”)
18More “Intelligences?” Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfullyEmotional Intelligence-ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions-critical part of social intelligence
20Intelligence and Creativity Creativity- ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable5 PartsExpertiseImaginative Thinking SkillsVenturesome PersonalityIntrinsic MotivationA Creative Environment
21Remote Associates Test Call Pay Line ____________End Burning Blue ____________Man Hot Sure ____________Man Wheel High ____________Blue Cake Cottage ____________Motion Poke Down __________Stool Powder Ball ____________
23Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? .15 correlation between head size and intelligence score..44 correlation between brain size and intelligence score.What all effects the size of your brain?
24Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Einstein’s brain was 15% larger in the parietal lobe’s lower region…center for mathematical processing and spatial information.But smaller in some other regions.
25Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Brain Glucose Consumption: high performers on tasks consume LESS glucose when performing cognitive tasks.
26Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Perceptual Speed: People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence testsStimulusMaskQuestion: Long side on left or right?
27Assessing Intelligence: Aptitude vs. Achievement Test Aptitude Tests: are tests designed to predict a person’s future performance.SAT’s and GRE’sAchievement Test: a test designed to assess what a person has learned.Midterm Psych exam, chapter 3 history test, etc.
28Assessing Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)most widely used intelligence testsubtestsverbalperformance (nonverbal)Also a WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children).
29Assessing Intelligence- Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977VERBALGeneral InformationSimilaritiesArithmetic ReasoningVocabularyComprehensionDigit SpanPERFORMANCEPicture CompletionPicture ArrangementBlock DesignObject AssemblyDigit-Symbol Substitution